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Report 

to the 
North Carolina Commission 

on 
UNIVERSITY CONSOLIDATION 



by 
Guy Stanton Ford 
F. L. McVey 
Geo. A. Works 

May, 1932 

This copy is a preprint of the first four 
chapters of the report of the survey com- 
mittee and is subject to correction of er- 
rors and verbal changes. The reports by 
the specialists will form chapters V, VI, 
and VII. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://www.archive.org/details/reporttonorthcarOOford 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

Introduction ••••••••••••••••••••*. 1 

I. Administrative and Educational Organization 10 

II. Allocation of Functions 16 

III* Preparation of Teachers •«■••••••••••••• 34 

IV. Supplementary Suggestions ••••••••••••••• 57 

Appendices 

Appendix 

A. Activities Undertaken by Graduates of the North Carolina 
College for Women the First Year After Graduation ... 64 

B. Activities in Which Graduates of the North Carolina 
College for ^omen, 1922-31, Inclusive, Were Engaged in 

the Autumn of 1931 65 

•©-» Ave r age Sco re ana Standard Do^i ' Rti on ■ on Hi - ph Sohool Toots - 

• of Mwtterta of C e n m er e o and Buoino e o Adffllni i str a tl o a - . • 63- 

•&S- Te ntative Program for trecfariaag T e aah e rs of 0oimmu ' ol «3* 

for Women - «47> 



-ii- 



INTRODUCTION 

The General Assembly of North Carolina, on March 27, 1931, ratified 
an aot by 'which the University of North Carolina, the North Carolina College 
of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College for Women were 
"consolidated and merged" into the "University of North Carolina." This act 
further provided for a commission of twelve persons in addition to the 
Governor "to -work out plans for the consolidation of the component parts of 
the University." The Governor is ex officio chairman of this commission 
which is known as the "Commission on University Consolidation." 

The commission as finally constituted consisted of the following: 

Governor 0. Max Gardner, Chairman. 

Fred W. Morrison, Secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Dr. Frank P. Graham, President, University of North Carolina. 

Dr. E. C. Brooks, President, North Carolina State College. 

Dr. J. I. Foust, President, North Carolina College for Women. 

Dr. L. R. Wilson, Librarian, University of North Carolina. 

Dr. W. C. Riddick, Dean, School of Engineering, North Carolina 
State College. 

Dr. Benjamin B. Kendrick, Professor of History, North Carolina 
College for Women. 

Mr. S. B. Alexander, Charlotte, North Carolina. 

Mr. F. L. Jackson, Treasurer, Davidson College. 

Mrs. E. L. McKee, Sylva, North Carolina. 

Miss Easdale Shaw, Rockingham, North Carolina. 

Judge N. A. Townsend, Charlotte, North Carolina. 



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Responsibilities of the Commission 

By this act, the commission was oharged with these responsibilities 
among others: 

"1» To work out a scheme to bring unification of the executive con- 
trol in the University of North Carolina, North Carolina State College of 
Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina College for Women, so 
that each of said institutions may best serve the needs of the people. 

"2. To unify and coordinate the general educational program of the 
University of North Carolina as herein provided for. 

"3. To work out a scheme in which, and through which, all the problems 
arising from the consolidation of the three existing institutions into the 
University of North Carolina may, in their opinion, be best solved. 

n 4» That the final location of all schools, departments, and divisions 
of work now located at any of the three institutions shall be subject to 
the study and recommendations of the experts and the commission without 
prejudioe by any provisions in this bill*" 

In the discharge of its responsibilities as set forth in the act, 
the commission selected a survey committee consisting of the following: 

F. M. MoVey, President of the University of Kentucky. 

G. S. Ford, Dean of the Graduate School, University of Minnesota. 
Geo. A. Works, Chairman, Dean of Students and University Examiner, 

University of Chicago. 

The three institutions, the University of North Carolina, the North 
Carolina College of Agriculture and Engineering, and the North Carolina 
College for Women have rendered distinctive service. Each institution in 
its own way has made valuable contributions to the welfare of the state. 

Each of the institutions furnished data on the enrollment as of 
November 2, 1931. There were at Chapel Hill, 2,825 students; at Greensboro, 
1,437| and at Raleigh, 1,793; making a total of 6,055. The student body 
at Greensboro consists exclusively of women. At Chapel Hill, women are 



-3- 

freely admitted above the junior college level, and to a limited degree in 
the freshman and sophomore years. There was a total of 246 on the date 
enrollment statistics were collected. At Raleigh, 78 women were enrolled. 

The University 

The University was the first 3tate university to be established in 
this country. It3 charter was granted by the General Assembly in 1789. 
The cornerstone of Old East Building was laid in 1793, and the University 
was opened in 1795. Since that time the institution has been in continuous 
operation except for a few years following the war between the states. It 
has furnished many men who have rendered distinctive service to the state, 
the nation, and the world wide commonwealth of learning. One needs only to 
examine Bulletin 276 of the University, Research in Progress, to realize 
that scholarly researclk is a genuine interest of the institution. Furthermore, 
North Carolina is one of the ttiree or four states of the South that have 
made a real contribution through the development of a general extension 
service, to the life of the people. The institution has maintained high 
standards of teaching, research, and of service for citizens of the state 
who are unable to come to its campus for study. 

State College 

Nearly one hundred years elapsed after the origin of the University 
before another institution was established. This second institution was 
originally known as the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts. This name was changed to the North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Engineering in 1917. Like other land-grant institutions it has rendered 
material assistance to agriculture arid to the industries of the state. 
Farming, a basic industry of North Carolina, has benefited greatly from the 
work of the agricultural experiment station. Under the stimulation of the 
Smith-Lever Extension Act much has been done toward the development of rural 



life both on the farm and in the home. Throughout the state evidences can 
be found of the results of research and extension that have been carried on 
by North Carolina State College. In recent years by the preparation of 
teachers of agriculture for the high schools and the training of oounty 
agricultural agents, it has touohed farm life closely. Its influence for the 
upbuilding of country life is to be found in all sections of the state. 

The School of Engineering and the Textile School have not had the 
stimulus of federal funds to lead them into the fields of research and ex- 
tension to the degree that has been true in agriculture. As a result, their 
activities have been more largely confined to resident instruction, but not 
to the entire neglect of research and extension. 

The College for Women 

The North Carolina College for Women was established by the General 
Assembly of 1891 and received students in the autumn of 1892. It was the 
first effort on the part of the state to make provision for the higher 
education of women. In its early days it was almost exclusively an institu- 
tion for the training of teachers. The original name, in fact, was the 
North Carolina State Normal and Industrial School. Even at the present 
time it is primarily a teacher-training institution although the curriculum 
has been greatly broadened in recent years to increase the opportunities of 
general eduoation for the women of the state. 

Through the cooperation of the alumnae office of the College the 
survey committee was able to obtain information regarding the activities 
entered upon immediately after graduation by the members of the classes 
from 1922 to 1931 inclusive. The activities of these same persons were 
gathered for the ourrent year. Reports were obtained from ninety-four per 
cent of the persons who were graduated during the ten- year period. These 
show that approximately three-fourths of the students at the time of leaving 
college entered some type of teaching (Appendix A). There is but little 



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change in the proportions during ihe past ton years except for a decline 
in 1931, probably due to the inability of some of the members of that olaes 
to secure teaching positions. At the time the data were collected slightly 
more than one-half of those who had graduated during the ten-year period 
•were still teaching (Appendix B). The institution in the main is well 
equipped to prepare teachers and it would be difficult to overstate the 
contribution made to the state's welfare through this service • 

This brief statement regarding the founding of the 'three institutions 
under consideration makes it clear that two decisions regarding policies to 
be followed, are the chief causes of the present conditions. The first of 
these was the decision to establish a separate land-grant college* This 
decision was made beoause of the unwillingness of the University to comply 
with the spirit of the Land-Grant College Act. The second decision was made 
later when the need for the higher education of women became imperative, and 
at that time those who were responsible for the guidance of higher education 
elected to have this new demand met by the establishment of a third institu- 
tion. 

These decisions once having been made, the pressure for expansion of 
the institutions on the part of the communities in which they were located, 
became an important factor in their development. In fact, in the oase of 
the land- grant college local pressure was undoubtedly one of the causes 
that lead to its establishment as a separate institution* As the costs of 
higher education have grown ihe looal character of many state- supported 
institutions has been the oause of real concern in a number of the states as 
well as in North Carolina. In any efforts made to change the situation in 
North Carolina in a fundamental fashion, the results of this looal pride 
are certain to be encountered. However, looal considerations should be 
laid aside. Recognition should be given to the improvements in transpor- 
tation and oommunioation that have been made in the last generation. 
Cognizanoe should be taken of the tendency for the publio school system to 



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expand upward through the junior college period. Finally, the financial 
costs of maintaining good institutions of higher learning are great and may 
beoome greater. With these basic facts in mind, those interested in the 
welfare of North Carolina and especially in its program of higher eduoation 
should be influenced in "their decisions only by considerations which relate 
to the state as a whole. If tine decisions made by the state are determined 
in the light of local conditions or pressures, the lapse of time is certain 
to accentuate the unfortunate elements in the present situation with the 
result that the state will not have the greatest possible development of 
its program of higher eduoation, and will be saddled with mounting costs 
due to a failure to make the state point of view dominant in the field of 
higher education. 

The problem tiie state now faces is to obtain such a degree of inte- 
gration of the work of these three institutions as will result in one great 
university tied closely to the life of the state through its teaching, 
extension, and research. It is the high responsibility of this generation 
to grapple with the task. It will grow increasingly difficult if it is 
passed on to 3-teoeeding generations. The necessary changes should be made 
regardless of the effects they may have on the three institutions included 
in this survey. 

Through their years of service, each institution has naturally and 
properly developed a following. Allegiances have been formed by alumni, other 
former students, parents of students, trustees, and other who have had an 
opportunity to become acquainted with the work of the institutions. It will 
naturally be difficult for persons with pronounced institutional loyalties 
to see eye to eye in all instances with a group such as the survey committee 
who approaohed the questions involved witiiout an institutional bias. The 
attachments of alumni are certain to be strong. This is right and proper. 
But in making decisions with referenoe to the university system contemplated 
in the legislation and in this report, institutional loyalties should be 



-7- 

subordinated to the welfare of the state. It is as citizens of North Caro- 
lina, not as adherents of one of its institutions that graduates will be 
called on to act and to justify the special privileges they have enjoyed. 

The pages which follow record the deliberate judgment of the survey 
committee regarding the steps to be taken to weld the three institutions 
into a university organization that will contribute to the state's progress 
in a larger degree than would be practicable for three separate institutions. 

Temporary and easy expedients should be set aside. The idea of 
trading one type of work in a given institution for some other type in 
another, should not be tolerated. The only solutions alumni have any right 
to consider are those that in the long run will give the state, within the 
funds available, the strongest possible program of higher education. The 
state made possible the existence of their alma mater and now their obli- 
gation is to see that the state receives the maximum of return through dis- 
passionate consideration of the future of higher education within its 
boundaries. The survey committee had no alternative but to submit a report 
which it believed to be fundamentally sound and of such character as would 
ultimately bring the maximum benefits to the state rather than to temporize 
with conditions that are more immediate. 

In considering the recommendations in the chapters which follow it 
should be borne in mind that the survey committee has not thought of these 
as all going into immediate effect. A genuine unification of two or more 
institutions comes by growth. However, on one point the committee is clear 

— this growth in unity of spirit will come only as conditions are made 
favorable for its development. The survey committee, therefore, wishes to 
record its belief that certain important and radical immediate steps are 
necessary in order that faculty, students, and trustees shall begin thinking 
in state-wide terms and that the people of the state shall become accustomed 
to the idea that a great task has been undertaken namely the task of securing 
a spiritual union of three separate institutions in the new University of 



-8- 

North Carolina. 

Two major problems were before the committee: 

1. The problem of securing the type of an administrative and edu- 
cational organization that would be most likely to result in a great state 
university — an institution worthy of a state that early learned to prize 
higher education. 

2. The problem of allocating particular functions among the three 
institutions on such bases as would give to the state the largest possitle 
returns for its expenditure on higher education. 

In arriving at decisions regarding suggestions to be made, the survey 
committee has worked under a serious limitation in two respects. In the first 
place the state has three teachers colleges for whites; although they are 
important elements in the program of higher education of the state, they were 
not included by the legislature in the survey. In the second place the State 
Department of Education which is in certain respects intunately connected 
with the development of state supported higher eduoation was also omitted by 
the legislature from the survey. Conferences were held by representatives 
of the survey committee with persons from each of these institutions but 
these conferences were incidental and not with the idea that the institutions 
and their activities were to be canvassed as an integral part of the study. 

At the first conference the chairman of the survey committee had 
with the commission on university consolidation, action was taken giving 
the committee complete freedom for its study and report. This condition 
has obtained throughout the study. Furthermore, it should be recorded that 
on the part of each institution there has been full and complete cooperation 
by faculty and administrative officers. The collection of information needed 
by the committee and the conferences necessary have thrown an extra burden 
on these persons in a period that was, due to financial conditions, a trying 
one. 

The survey committee has had the services of the following individuals 



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in the study. 

Adult education: Morse Cartwright, Executive Secretary of the 
Adult Education Association. 

Business education: R. A. Stevenson, Dean of the School of Business 
Administration, University of Minnesota. 

Education for women: C. Mildred Thompson, Dean of Vassar College. 

Engineering education! W. E. Wickenden, President of Case School 
of Applied Science. 

Training of teachers: C. H. Judd, Dean of the School of Education, 
University of Chicago, and W« S. Gray, Director of Teacher Training, 
University of Chicago. 

On the basis of reports submitted by these persons and its own 
study of conditions, the survey committee prepared an outline of tentative 
proposals involved in the consolidation. Those proposals were then discussed 
in a conference attended by the members of the committee and the following 
persons who had not previously participated in the study: 

L. D. Coffman, President of the University of Minnesota, and member 
of the Survey Commissions of Texas, Kansas, and New Jersey. 

E« C. Elliott, President of Purdue University, formerly Chancellor 
of the University of Montana. 

F. J. Kelly, United States Office of Education. 

Henry Suzzalo, President of Carnegie Foundation, Chairman of the 
California Survey Commission. 

Geo. F. Zook, President of Akron University, formerly specialist on 
higher education of the United States Office of Education, and director 
of several state surveys. 

The reports of the special investigators and the results of the 
discussions have been U3ed in the formulation of the report, but the survey 
committee must take the responsibility for the present form of this report. 



CHAPTER I 



ADMINISTRATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL 
ORGANIZATION 



In planning for the new University of North Carolina, one of the most 
important considerations is to secure on the part of Faoulty, Trustees, and 
Administrative Offioers, a realization that for the first time in the history 
of the state a single publioly supported higher institution of learning has 
been projected to serve, within the limitations appropriate to higher education, 
the white population of the state without reference to sex or occupation. 
Each of the three institutions now combined, worked with certain limitations 
with respect to these factors when it was independently organised. Any branch 
of the University organization, will still have limitations, but the new 
University as a whole will be limited in its service only by the resources the 
state puts at its disposal. The transition from a local to a state point of 
view, from the old institutional to the new institutional outlook, from the 
interests of groups to the interests of all, will not be easy. It is, there- 
fore, highly important that administrative provisions be made for keeping the 
state-wide outlook dominant. 

Board of Trustees 

The legislation provides for a Board of Trustees of one hundred to be 

chosen by the Legislature, with the Governor and the State Superintendent of 

Public Instruction as ex officio members. Boards of this size have in general 

proved so unwieldy that tho results were not satisfactory. True, the University 

and the State College have both had large boards with results apparently 

satisfactory. However, in this new University it must be borne in mind that 

until a real integration of the three branches is achieved, there is danger 

that old loyalties will conceal larger issues. In the opinion of the survey 

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committee, a small board - eight to ten members - is to be preferred to one 
of the size provided in the Act. However, if it does not appear to be 
practicable to ohange to a small board, it is suggested that the policy followed 
in the past by the boards of State College and the University be followed, 
viz., of creating an executive committee and giving it large powers. 

The survey oommittee makes the following recommendations bearing on 
this suggested Executive Committee: 

1. That the Board of Trustees select in such manner as it deems best 
an Executive Committee of eight members. As members of the Board are chosen 
for eight year periods it will be possible to have an executive committee which 
would normally have the terms of two members expiring every other year. It is 
highly important for the periods of service to be of sufficient duration so 
that a member has an opportunity to become thoroughly acquainted with the 
University system long before the end of his term. Likewise, it is undesirable 
to have changes in a large percentage of the membership at one time. The 
suggested plan of staggering the appointments would meet this situation. 

2. That the Executive Committee be given large powers by the Board. 
It should pass on appointments, budgets, and allocation of faculty and staff 
subject to recommendation by the President. This Committee should also make 
such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the government and the 
successful administration of the University system. 

3. Thflt none of the ex officio members of the Board of Trustees should 
serve on the Executive Committee. A report* recently approved by the National 
Association of State Universities covers this phase so well that it is quoted 
here: 

The custom of having ex officio members of Board of Trustees or 
Regents fortunately has not prevailed very widely* The theory is 
thoroughly unsound, the practice is even worse. In the first place, 



1 Report of Committee on University Control, 1S31. 



-12- 
these people are irregular in their attendance and always limited in 
their information. In the second place, any conscientious man in 
such a position would recognise his limitations and be embarrassed 
by attempting leadership. Acquaintance with the important policies 
of a modern state university requires years of experience and definite 
application to their study. This is fundamentally why members of such 
Boards should have a long tenure of office. In the third place, an 
ex officio member is subject to the change of politioal motives and 
of having, a status somewhat different from the status of a regularly 
appointed or elected Trustee. It is not good administration to have 
two different classes of memberships in a Board dealing with a 
permanent institution and especially so when these ex officio members 
are temporary in their relation. 

An additional point worthy of note is that frequently an ex officio 
member in the discharge of his official duties is called upon to take a stand 
ragarding questions upon which he has already passed as a member of the 
Executive Committee. Both he and his associates, if he were on the Executive 
Committee, would at times be embarrassed by this. The University is entitled 
to the consideration of men who are single minded to its interests alone. 

Eduoational Leadership 

The educational leadership of the new University is an important 
consideration. To this question the survey committee has given serious study. 
As a result of its deliberations, the following recommendations are made: 

1. The educational leadership should center in a 6ingle individual 
responsible to the Board of Trustees on one hand and to the Faculty of the 
University system on the other. The title of President is suggested for this 
position. Needless to say, the choice of this individual is a vital matter. 
One readily sees he must be a man of broad vision, fine courage, keen sense 
of justice, and, with all, human. He will find it necessary in the early years 



-13- 
of the new University, in season and out, to insist that the state's needs are 
to be the first consideration. Petty jealousies, local pride, institutional 
rivalry, must all be subordinated to the development of a new University great 
enough to encompass all of the larger needs of the state. 

2. The office of the President should have such an organisation as 
experience may prove necessary in order to coordinate the aotivities of the 
new University. The survey committee forecasts one position in this office. 
There should be a University comptroller appointed on the recommendation of 
the President and responsible to him. The new University will have one budget. 
It will be necessary to have an official to administer this budget and to follow 
expenditures subject to direction from the President. The relationship between 
finance and the educational policy in a university is intimate. The control 
of expenditures is so closely identified with the life of the institution that 
the comptroller should be responsible to the President. No other arrangement 
will prove satisfactory over any considerable period of time. In the opinion 
of the survey committee this would be a step looking toward economical 
administration. 

In this connection it should be pointed out that a grave danger exists 
in North Carolina lest the encroachments of the State Budget Bureau so tie the 
hands of eduoational authorities that they will have but little voice in the 
determination of policies for the University syBtem. No one would gainsay the 
right of the General Assembly to fix the amount to be made available for higher 
education for a given biennium. However, having taken that action, it should 
give those who are responsible for the new University the maximum degree of 
latitude in determining how the expenditures are to be made within the budget. 
If the administration of the University system is not competent or dependable 
in this respect, it should be changed rather than to transfer the authority to 
an officer who is far removed both in point of location and experience from the 
problems involved. 

The survey oomnittee is also of the opinion that it will be desirable 



-14- 
to make provision for a central direction of Extension, the Graduate School, 
and the Summer Session. 

Administrative Council 

3. The President should have an Administrative Council whose members 
are chosen for one year at a time, consisting of the following: 

a. One member to be chosen by the Faculty of each branch of the 
institution, i. e., Raleigh, 1 Greensboro, and Chapel Hill. 

b. The Vice President of each branch of the new University. 2 

c. Nine members to be appointed by the President with due regard 
to the size of student body, number of departments and size of 
faculty of each of the three branches. 

d. The President should be chairman of this Council. 

This Council should have the responsibilities ordinarily carried by 
such bodies in universities. It will serve as a body in which administrative 
policies and procedures will be considered from the viewpoint of the whole 
University system. 

Provision should be made for a University Senate having as members 
all persons with the rank of assistant professor or higher. The size of this 
body and the distances will preclude frequent meetings. It should be the 
deliberative and legislative body in questions of educational policy affecting 
the University organization a6 a whole, e. g., entrance requirements, graduation 
requirements, etc. The Senate as a body should have the privilege of approach 
to the Sxeoutive Committee of the Board of Trustees if circumstances make such 
action desirable. If committees are appointed to deal with minor questions, it 
would not be necessary for the Senate as a body to meet more than two or three 
times a year. The President should preside over its meetings. 

1 Subject to the recommendations made later in the report. 

2 See the discussion under local organization. 



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Orgaiii cation at Each Branch 
It will be necessary to provide for some administrative organization 
at each of the tranches of the new University, These organizations should be 
kept as simple as ie practicable, consistent with the demands of the local 
situation. The survey committee makes the following recommendations: 

1. The chief administrative officer at a branch of the University 
system should be known as a Vice President* 

2. Local educational and business authorities should be responsible 
to the President through the office of the appropriate Vice President. 

The preceding discussions; have included frequent reference to the 
need for the development and maintenance of a state-wide point of view 
regarding the types of work to be undertaken at the different branches of the 
University system. This breadth of view should extend beyond the office of the 
President. The sooner it permeates the thinking of the several branches of 
the University system the better it will be for the institution and for the 
state. The Administrative Council and the University Senate should serve 
valuable purposes in this connections 

The University Senate will provide means for the consideration of the 
questions of educational policy affecting the University system, that are of 
major importance. In the Administrative Council, problems of administrative 
policy and prooedure will be discussed. Final readjustments in the work of the 
branches of the University system and their relationship tG one another would 
naturally be made by the President, subject to the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Trustees. In the opinion of the survey committee, this relatively 
simple organization will be adequate for administrative purposes. It has 
purposely been sketched only in outline. It is much better to let the details 
grow out of experience than to attempt to predict them in advance. It is 
important that the organization be flexible enough tc permit faculty and 
administrative officers to adapt it to the needs of the new University as it 
develops. 



CHAPTER II 



SUGGESTED ALLOCATION OF 
FUNCTIONS 



One of the tasks set the survey committee was to reoommend a division 
of the work among the branches of the new University. As a background for the 
changes proposed, the units for instruction, research, and extension in opera- 
tion in each institution at the time of the study are given. They were as 
follows J 

1. The North Carolina College for Women. 

a. The College of Liberal Arts (including library science). 
b» The School of Education. 
o. The School of Music. 

d. The School of Home Economics. 

e. The Commercial Department. 

f. The Extension Division. 

g. The Summer Session. 

h. The Graduate Division. 

(A currioulum in library science is integrated with the program 

of the College of Liberal Arbs.) 

2. North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 

a. The School of Agriculture (including forestry and the Experi- 
ment Station). 

b. The School of Education. 

c. The School of Engineering. 

d. The School of Soience and Business. 

e. The Textile School. 

f. College Extension. 

-16- 



-17- 

E # The Summer School. 

(The College at one time had a Graduate School. This was recently 
discontinued although the work continues under another plan.) 
3. The University of North Carolina. 

a. The School of Liberal Arts. 

b. The School of Applied Science (engineering). 

c. The School of Education. 

d. The School of Commerce. 

e. The School of Public Vfelfare. 

f. The Graduate School. 

g. The Summer School. 

h. The Extension Division. 

i. The School of Law. 

j. The School of Medicine (two year curriculum). 

k. The School of Pharmacy. 

1. The Graduate Library School. 

(There are two other units of importance from the viewpoints of 

research and publication. Reference is to the Institute for 

Research in Social Science, and the University Press.) 

Duplications 

The preceding statements show the existence of certain duplications 
of work and arouse a lively apprehension as to what may happen in the future. 
There is a School of Engineering at Raleigh and also one at Chapel Hill. The 
same is the case in business and commerce. The College for Women has a 
course for the training of librarians, and there is also provision for the 
training of libraries at Chapel Hill. Each branch has a school of education, 
and each maintains a program of general extension activities aside from the 
extension work in agriculture and home economics which oenters at Raleigh, 
This is the type of duplication regarding vriiich question may properly be 



-18- 
raised. Is it necessary? 

Such subjects as English, history, mathematics, etc are taught at 
each place. Obviously, it is necessary to have instruction in the elementary 
phases of these subjects at each center. This is a form of duplication that 
is inescapable as long as the University system maintains three branches. 
Duplication of instruction at the elementary level in institutions of the 
size included in this study , is not so expensive as at higher levels. This 
is due to the fact that classes are usually of sufficient size to keep in- 
structional costs lower than is possible in the more advanced phases of a 
subject* However, the results of recent studies which have been made demon- 
strating that large group instruction is apparently as efficient as small 
group instruction, make one much reluctant to make a statement even as 
guarded as the above. At the higher levels the increased instructional 
costs resulting from small classes, become more obvious. Data collected on 
size of classes in the three institutions show clearly that the instructional 
costs in the last two years of college and at the graduate level are higher 
than would be necessary if the three institutions were on one campus. 

The survey committee has confined itself primarily to what it con- 
sidered major duplications and to those which were deemed unnecessary, 
although in its recommendations it has been influenced by the type of dupli- 
cations first discussed. The acceptance of the recommendations made in this 
report will provide the necessary administrative organization for eliminating 
or reducing the minor duplications to a minimum as long as the same type of 
work is continued at more than one center. This same organization will make 
it possible to provide a mobility of teachers and students among the branches 
that has not obtained in the past. This mobility will further minimize un- 
necessary expense in the new University. 

Major Recommendations Affecting Allocation 
of Work 

The survey committee has two major suggestions to make affecting 



-19- 
the work of the branches of the university organization. They are: 

1. The transfer of State College from Raleigh to Chapel Hill. In 
making this transfer, it may perhaps be wise to make provision for leaving a 
program of general education carried through the junior college level at 
Raleigh. Whether or not this should be entirely state supported or maintained 
by a combination of state and local support should be determined by the state's 
future policy regarding the maintenance of publicly supnorted junior colleges. 

2. The transfer from Greensboro to Chapel Hill of the forms of pro- 
fessional and specialized training that are now found at Greensboro. In the 
recommendations which follow, exceptions to this general rule are made in the 
case of the professional training of teachers and of the work in secretarial 
science. The state should adhere in the future to the policy of locating at 
Chapel Hill such new types of specialized and professional training as are a 
part of the University system. 

The survey committee believes these solutions offer the greatest 
promise of making the new University most useful to the state with the minimum 
expense. Not to give frank expression to this conviction would be most unfair 
to the state. 

Transfers from Raleigh to Chapel Hill: These suggestions will be 
considered in turn. The relation between engineering on the one hand and 
the basic sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and biology, mathematics, and 
increasingly the social sciences on the other is so intimate that no out- 
standing school of engineering can be developed independently of them. The 
contacts with business and educational leaders oonvinced the committee that 
they believe the state desires a School of Engineering which will compare 
favorably with the better schools of the country. If this is true, such a 
school can be developed only at an institution in which the work in basic 
sciences is better developed than is now true at Raleigh. The argument made 
for the intimate relationship between engineering and the sciences is equally 
true of agriculture. The strongest colleges of engineering and agriculture 



-20- 

oan not be developed independent of strong departments in the basic sciences, 
mathematics, and economics. 

Other Solutions Considered 

The survey committee gave consideration to other plans short of the 
above possible solution. The most obvious suggestion would be to transfer 
engineering; to Raleigh, and business and commerce to Chapel Hill. It would, 
however, call for two important changes! 

1. The development of the expensive departments of physics, chemistry, 
biology, and mathematics to the level approximated now at Chapel Hill but not 
now at Raleigh* This could be done over a period of years but only at a very 
considerable expense in laboratories, library, and staff. 

2. The reduction of the work in sciences at Chapel Hill to the junior 
college level and the division of graduate work between the two centers. 

In the opinion of the s-irvey committee, the state does not now have, 
nor is it likely to have, the resources with which to maintain year after 
year two centers for high grade research and instruction at the upper levels 
of science. 

If the proposal to develop strong science departments at Ralei ,h were 
accepted, it would mean an institution at Chapel Hill concerned with in- 
struction in all general fields through the junior college period, and above 
that level it would be concerned alone with the humanities and the social 
sciences and their applications. At Raleigh, the branch would offer in- 
struction in the general fields throuj^h the junior college period and above 
that level it would be devoted to work in the basic sciences and their 
applications. This arrangement would also call for the transfer of the 
School of Medicine to Raleigh, for medicine is the application of biology, 
chemistry, and other sciences to human health and care, not to be wisely 
divorced from then. 

The rejection of this proposal in favor of the one recommended by 



-21- 
which engineering and agriculture would be transferred to Chapel Hill, was 
due to the belief on the part of the committee that the separation of the 
sciences and their applications, from the humanities and social sciences 
would be unfortunate from an educational viewpoint. There are certain 
values obtained from the intimate mingling- of students and faculties from 
the two groups, that are lost even when the distance is no p.rsater than the 
thirty miles which separate Raleigh and Chapel Hill. The committee was so 
firmly of this opinion that it felt confident that if the attempt is made to 
transfer the basic sciences to Raleigh it would commit the state to a gyeat 
expense with results that "rould not be satisfactory. That state is fortunate 
whose future lawyers, doctors, engineers, bankers, industrialists, and leaders 
in agriculture are brought together in their period of training on one campus 
and share the social and educational opportunities. For those who in the 
future will demand new curricula drawn from all fields, training for careers 
we can not anticipate, it is vital that every facility the state can afford 
be mobilized at one center. The committee was so firmly of this opinion, it 
felt confident that if a division is chosen it will commit the state to a 
great expense with results that will not prove satisfactory. 

A third solution was also considered. This was the transfer of 
engineering only, from Raleigh to Chapel Hill and the retention of a program 
of general education through the .iunior college period, and the further de- 
velopment of agriculture, forestry, and a division of industries at Raleigh. 
A beginning in this last field has already been made through the work in 
ceramics and textiles. Both ceramics and textiles offer much larger possi- 
bilities than have thus far been realized. There are other industries as 
yet undeveloped. The rejection of this plan by the survey committee was due 
to the need for good instruction in soience in connection with agriculture, 
and to a degree in connection with the type of instruction proposed in the 
industries. 

The survey committee is fully aware that its proposals if accepted 



-22- 
in full, would not effect all the hoped for economics, but it doubts whether 
any plan short of the abolition at all three centers of certain schools or 
departments would result in any considerable immediate economy. Such a 
withdrawal from ground already occupied, in response to state needs, can be 
executed only by state action. A move as drastic as this could not be ad- 
vised by a committee from outside of the state. The relative values placed 
on these sohools and departments is a question that can be answered only by 
the people of the state. 

Transfer Should be Gradual 

The work in business and commerce should gradually be removed from 
Raleigh by not admitting freshmen to the ^vork after the academic year 1931-32. 
The training of teachers in fields other than agriculture and industrial arts 
could be eliminated by not admitting students to t; em in the junior year after 
1S31-32. These two changes would effect some minor economies, and they might 
well be made without reference to the larger plan. 

When the state resources will permit the erection of new buildings, 
the first funds should be spent on the development of the engineering plant 
at Chapel Hill with the idea of transferring the engineering work. Agri- 
culture could follow and later the work in industries, leaving only a general 
junior college at Raleigh, as the survey committee has recommended. The loss 
to the state as a result of the abandonment of the buildings at Raleich would 
be sms.ll indeed as compared with the cost of replacements and additions at 
Raleigh and the increased cost of maintenance over a period of twenty or 
twenty-five years resulting from a decision to maintain two separate institu- 
tions of excellence. Furthermore, the single institution would be, from an 
educational standpoint more satisfactory than two separate units. 

The decision to advise the physical consolidation of these two 
branches has only been reached after careful consideration. It is recom- 
mended with confidence that if the people of the state face the issue sauarely 



-23- 

and make the change suggested, they will have rendered a service to the 
state that over time will be of almost immeasurable value from an educational 
viewpoint and that will ultimately mean a large financial saving. 

Transfers from Greensboro to Chaoel Hill 

The seoond major suggestion deals with the transfer of specialized 
types of training from the branch of the University at Greensboro to Chapel 
Hill. 

Training of Librarians 

Provision has been made for the training of librarians both at the 
North Carolina College for Women and at the University. In the College for 
Yfomen the training is given in the senior year. At the University the 
instruction is at the graduate level during the regular academic year, but 
during the summer, work is given at the undergraduate level. The work at 
Greensboro is designed exclusively for school librarians, and at Chapel Hill 
the instruction is planned to train personnel for school^ college, and public 
libraries. 

Courses were first offered in library science at Chapel Hill in the 
Summer School of 1904. That same year some instruction was developed for the 
student assistants in the library. About 1920 the library science offered 
in the summer school, was adapted to the needs of school librarians. Finally 
in 1931 the Graduate Library School was opened. The program of instruction 
in this field was developed a year or two earlier at Greensboro than at 
Chapel Hill. 

During the summer of 1931 there were 140 students enrolled in library 
science at Chapel Hill and 29 during the first term at Greensboro. No work 
was offered during the second term. At Greensboro the enrollment at the time 
of the survey was 22 and at Chapel Hill 35. The budgets at Chapel Hill for 
the current year are summer school, 5)2200 o 0C »6«demic year, $18,000.00. At 



-24- 
Greensboro the corresponding figures are $292.50 and $4400.00. 

The survey committee is of the opinion that the instruction in library 
science should be dropped at the end of this year* This recommendation is 
based on the following* 

1. Evidenoe does not indicate the need for more than one oenter. A 
large share of the persons preparing for school library work will do so through 
the s-ummer schools and if the branch of the University system at Chapel Hill 
offers instruction in both terms of the Summer School, the saturation point will 
soon be reached as far as school librarians ere concerned. If there should 
prove to be need for additional persons, members of the staff from the Sohool 
at Chapel Hill could offer six or eight semester hours of work for school li- 
brarians, to students during their senior year at Greensboro. 

2* The committee is lead to the location of the work at Chapel Hill 
rather than at Greensboro for the following reasons j 

a. The bibliographical resources at the former place are much 
better than they are at Greensboro. For sometime prior to the 
establishment of the School at the University, the authorities 
had been planning for the School and were collecting the needed 
resources* 

b. A new library building has reoently been completed at Chapel 
Hill with ample space for the School and for library purposes. 
At Greensboro the library is somewhat small for the student 
body and the space used for instruction in library soience is 
needed for general library purposes. 

The saving would not be great if this change were made as the amount expended 
for this purpose at Greensboro is not great. It should be done primarily on 
the basis of the better quality of work that can be done at Chapel Hill, due 
to the superior quality of its facilities and the better training of the in- 
structional staff. The present staff at Chapel Hill would be able to handle 
50 students. 



-25- 

The survey committee recommendations regarding the training of 
librarians is based on the assumption that a school of library science is to 
be maintained by the state. The committee believes the question of the de- 
velopment of such a school, in view of present conditions, may well have 
further consideration before the question is considered closed* 

The suggestion regarding the transfer of the work in library science 
is indicative of a movement that in the opinion of the survey committee should 
be carried forward as rapidly as resources will permit, viz., the transfer of 
all forms of specialized preparation except the training of teachere and the 
work in secretarial science, from Greensboro to Chapel Hill. Work in the 
fine arts should be developed, and the state can not afford more than one 
center for this purpose. The proper plaoe is Chapel Hill. The acceptance 
of this plan would result in the limitation of the work in music at Greens- 
boro to the training of public school teachers of music and such work in music 
a: is properly a part of a program of general education. Professional musicians 
would not be trained. The school would be changed to a department and the 
work in this field taken as a part of the program of work in the College of 
Liberal Arts. 

The professional work in home economics above the .junior college 
level should be transferred from Greensboro to Chapel Hill as soon as 
practicable. The argument for the transfer of home economics above the 
junior college level parallels that used in agrioulture and engineering « 
the large applications of the basic sciences, economics, and sociology to 
instruction and research in the field. The tendenoy in reoent years to 
devote a considerable portion of the junior college period in home economics 
to general education makes this suggestion readily practicable. 

The alace that the College at Greensboro is finally to occupy in the 
program of teacher training must await the state's decision regarding the 
allocation of functions among the teachers colleges. The data already 
submitted justify the statement that at the moment it is primarily a 



-26- 

teaoher-training institution. 

During: the last generation, higher education has assumed large 
proportione in our lives. Daily the instruction of the classroom and the 
work done in the laboratory and library are directly and indireotly vitalizing 
living. So real are the benefits arising from great universities that society 
annually places great sums of money at their disposal. The growth of these 
institutions has made evident the intimate relationship between the different 
fields of knowledge. The value of physioal proximity is shown by the tendency 
for certain types of professional education which formerly were offered by 
independent schools, to move into universities. Constantly the values flowing 
from the development of a university with its professional schools* graduate 
instruction, and research on the same eampus, are becoming more evident. This 
close relationship eives a stimulation to teachers and students that is lost 
when the several schools represented in a university are even no farther 
apart than are the branches of the new University. The confidence of the 
survey committee in the belief that a university of the type just described 
is what the State of North Carolina wants and what it will in the long run 
find most useful^ is the basis for the suggestion for the transfer of such 
important schools as agriculture, engineering, and commerce from Raleigh to 
Chapel Hill and for the transfer of professional or specialized education 
from Greensboro to Chapel Hill. 

Suggested Changes Calling for 
Minor Readjustments 

Training; of Teachers j The abandonment of the training of elementary 
school teachers at Chapel Hill is recommended. For the present, it is 
suggested that the training of elementary school teachers be ocntinued at 
Greensboro. The opportunities for instruction in the liberal arts to the 
level of the bachelor's degree should gradually be improved at Greensboro 
but in the judgment of the survey committee it should not at this time be 
carried above that level. 



-27- 

There is not in North Carolina nor in the immediate vicinity a 
center for the training of commercial teachers in the manner in whioh they 
should be prepared for service in the high school. Representatives of the 
State Department of Publio Instruction informed the survey oommittee that 
teachers were obtained only with difficulty. This work should be developed 
at Greensboro in conjunction with the work in secretarial science, which 
should also be expanded. The chapter dealing with commerce and business 
oontains a discussion of this phase. 

The Graduate School i In the organisation of research work and the 
training of graduate students there is fortunately no problem of allocating 
functions between the three units now combined in the new University of North 
Carolina. It is in research and teaching on the graduate level that the 
new institution finds its opportunity to justify itself as a university in 
the true sense of that word. These activities will demand all the surplus 
resources of the university over and above the obligations of college 
teaching. 

The unit known as the Graduate School is simply a body of specially 
selected and qualified teachers and students applying themselves in freedom 
and with the necessary library, laboratory, and field resouroes to the 
problems that challenge them. Any organisation that forwards and supports 
this cooperation, between elder and younger scholar, between teacher and 
student, must of necessity be simple. Complexity and administrative routines 
are foreign to the life of a graduate school and stifle its spirit. 

The organization for the central direction under the President should 
provide for a Dean of graduate work. Upon this official of the new University 
and his attitudes, and the breadth of his conception of research, and the 
soundness of his standards, and his impersonal courage in upholding such 
standards, rests a large measure of the success of research and scholarship 
in the University system. No one who believes that the profitable fields for 
research are today what they were when Johns Hopkins was founded, can properly 



-28- 
serve as dean of the graduate school in a modern university whether privately 
endowed or state supported. The maintenance and development of scholarship 
requires something more than a static faith that the traditional departments 
oompass all fields of study and research. Plaoed as the Graduate School 
necessarily is at the very center of the new organization, and integrating 
many departments, any cooksureness in its Dean as to what fields are or are 
not open to research and rewarding to scholarly effort would be fatal. 

The setting of standards in a graduate school lies in the maintenance 
of a sound selective prooess among those on the faculty who are by reason of 
their productive scholarship or teaching power at the graduate level to be 
placed in charge of a body of students admitted by seleotive standards. 
Even given qualified teachers and students in one field there can be no claim 
to do graduate work unless there are also the resources to work with and the 
supporting departments in allied fields. No science or field of specialization 
is sufficient unto itself in these days when boundaries in all fields of 
soholarly work are but the dead furrows between once existing divisions. The 
field and strip system in education is giving way at every level and nowhere 
more than in the higher reaches. 

It is in decisions, policies, and adjustments, conditioned by the 
above principles that the administration of the Graduate School will find 
a primary and persisting task. In meeting the problems it poses the Dean 
will need the aid of the scholars who really make any graduate school. By 
some plan suited to the situation he should gather around him a small ad- 
visory or executive oounoil of seven or eight men that are free from pre- 
possessions about colleges and departments as they now exist. With their 
aid, the graduate teaching faculty can be selected and gradually extended. 
Serving as leader, the Dean can become the proponent and executive of the 
educational polioies and conditions for degrees that such a faculty is able 
and willing to maintain. 

The conditions for uniting such a qualified staff on these oommon 



-2S~ 
problems are very propitious. The Graduate School at Chapel Hill has been 
sound enough and conservative enough in maintaining standards for the highest 
degree, that of doctor of philosophy, so that the University of Worth Carolina 
has gained membership in the Association of American Universities, a national 
body composed of those state and endowed universities setting and maintaining 
standards in graduate work. The other two campuses have recognized that the 
master's degree represents the most advanced training that they should under- 
take. This degree, they have given in some fields not now represented at 
Chapel Hill. 

Under the form of consolidation recommended by the conmittee or under 
any considered by it, the center of gravity and the responsibility for the 
development of the Graduate School will be at Chapel Hill. During any tran- 
sition period, it will be possible under central control to mobilize the 
personnel and faoilities for this most expensive and yet most important form 
of training. Under no form of organization is it justifiable to oonsider the 
duplioation of faculty, and facilities for the sake of building up anything 
but the completely unified Graduate School. 

In the opinion of your coneittee a consolidated educational program 
will oome with the least effort at the graduate school level. The servioe to 
be rendered is exceptionally valuable. Its realisation will give a new dignity 
to scholars and scholarship, quicken all intellectual life, widen horizons, 
and stimulate more vital teaching for the students on the undergraduate level 
as well as the graduate. It offers a new opportunity to demonstrate the 
educational leadership that the state has assumed and Justified in its 
section and in the nation in the twentieth century* 

The survey committee ha3 recognized the fact that it will not be 
practicable to make all of the suggested transfers immediately. In the 
interim there are some economics that the unification of control which has 
been reconmended will make readily practicable. Some of these suggestions would 
apply as between Chapel Hill and Greensboro even after the recommended changes 



-30- 
have been effected in entirety. A distinguished teacher could teaoh at more 
than one place. It would not be diffioult for a member of the Chapel Hill 
branoh to teach at that place and also at either Raleigh or vice versa. 
Between Raleigh and Chapel Hill, it would be practicable to transfer small 
classes when the facilities were better at one place than they were at the 
other. This would also be true in the case of Greensboro and Chapel Hill. 
Small classes dealing with the advanced phases of the same subjeots were 
found at eaoh of these oenters. Transportation of students would be cheaper 
in some of these cases than would duplication of effort at both places. 
An illustration of the possibility of mobility of students and 
faoutly proving advantageous is furnished by the Department of Rural Social 
Economics, which is located at Chapel Hill. This Department was established 
in 1914, before the State College had turned its attention to this important 
field. Edward Kidder Graham, who was president at the time the Department 
was established stated its purposes in the following words t "Its business 
-is to teach North Carolina to North Carolinians j not the North Carolina of 
day-bef ore-yesterday, but the North Carolina of day-after- tomorrow. " The 
studies conducted by the Department and its teaching have had a marked in- 
fluence in the state. Parenthetically, it may be stated that the survey 
committee has found one of the publications of this Department very helpful. 
The book iB North Carolina i Economic and Social , by Samuel Huntington Eobbs.Jr. 

More reoently the State College has entered the field of agricultural 
economics in which a modest but sound program is being developed. At one 
time considerable attention was given to rural sooiology, but temporarily 
that work is in abeyance. Both rural eoonomios and sociology are properly 
a part of the program of the State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 
Since the work in rural social economics is so well developed at Chapel Hill, 
and the library resources are there the survey committee is of the opinion 
that instead of moving this work to Raleigh a coordination of teaching and 
research be effected so that students at eaoh center will have the advantages 



-31- 
offered by instructors at both places until suoh time as the School of 
Agriculture is transferred to Chapel Hill. The number of advanced students 
in this field is small enoufh so that they oould be transported from one 
oenter to the other. In the more elementary phases of the work where classes 
were larger, an instructor could teach at both Raleigh and Chapel Hill. The 
coordination of the research activities would undoubtedly mean a larger return 
to the state than if each place were to work independently. 

The discussion of this phase has been developed as illustrative of 
what may be done in other areas. The authorities of the new University will 
undoubtedly find many opportunities for improving the quality of instruction 
and increasing the fruitfulness of the research by a closer coordination than 
has been developed while the three institutions were under separate adminis- 
trations . 

In evaluating recommendations that have been made, it should be borne 
in mind that the branch of the University at Chapel Hill has for years been 
building; up a strong library. It is one of the outstanding university libraries 
of the South. The present librarian realized the importance of a great library 
to a university, at least two deoades ago, and with faculty cooperation he 
began the development of a library that is now a source of great strength to 
the work at Chapel Hill. There are now 236,162 volumes of which 41,432 are 
bound periodicals. Among its resources are strong collections in chemistry, 
zoology, and botany. At Raleigh, on the other hand, until reoent years the 
library has had scant consideration. In 1930 there were only 29,023 volumes 
and no collections of note. 

Units of the Proposed University 

The changes proposed would result in a University system composed of 
the following units i 

1. Branoh at Greensboro, 
a. The Junior College. 



-32- 
b. The Senior College. 
o 8 The Summer Session. 
d» The Extension Department. 
The branoh at Greensboro in addition to having certain specialized 
phases of its work transferred to Chapel Hill should adopt a simplified 
organization by making such subjects as music, secretarial science, and 
education, departments instead of schools as is the oase in mu3ie, and edu- 
cation at present. 

2. Branch at Raleigh. 

a. The Junior College. 
(Whether or not this would remain a part of the University system or become 
a part of the publio school system would depend upon the polioy pursued in 
North Carolina regarding the development of publicly supported junior col leges , 
The survey committee is of the opinion that the tendency is for the junior 
college to develop as a part of the local school system. Ho statement in this 
report should be interpreted as being in opposition to that trend.) 

3. Branoh at Chapel Hill. 

a. The Junior College. 

b. The Senior College. 

c. The School of Engineering. 

d. The Department of Sdu cation » 

e. The School of Coasaeroe. 

f . The School of Public Welfare. 

g. The Graduate School. 

h. The School of Agriculture and Forestry, 
i. The School of Industries, 
j. The School of Law. 



The University system should have only one Division of Extension and 
one Summer Sohool, and these should be regarded only as units in the whole 
plan. 



-33- 

k. The School of Medicine* 
(It is within the range of possibility that conditions might change to a 
degree that it would be considered desirable to abandon the School of Medicine 
by the time the developments indicated above were effected.) 

1. The School of Pharmacy a 

m. The Graduate Library School. 

n. The School of Fine Arts „ 

o» The School of Home Economics . 

p. The Summer Sohool.^ 

q. The Extension Department e^ 



The University system should have only one Division of Extension and one 



Summer School. 



CHAPTER III 
PREPARATION OF TEACHERS 

Definite provision is made for the training of teachers in six state- 
supported institutions for white students in North Carolina. These institu- 
tions may be classified into two groups t 

Group I. Four year standard colleges j 
University of North Carolina. 
North Carolina College for Women. 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture 
and Engineering. 
Group II. Teaohers Collegest 

East Carolina Teaohers College* 
Appalachian State Teaohers College. 
Western Carolina Teachers College. 
All six of these institutions were visited during the course of the 
study* In addition there are fifteen denominational or other private col- 
leges and one private teaohers college for white students from whioh no data 
were secured other than the number of students in various fields of speciali- 
sation who will graduate at the end of the ourrent year. 

Certification Requirements 

The certification requirements, as defined by the State Board of 
Education, determine to a large extent the nature of the professional and 
subjeot-matter courses included in sequences for teachers. 



Regulations Governing Certificates, 1929. State Board of Eduoation, 



Raleigh, N. C. 



-34- 



-55- 

The present requirements were formulated in 1927-8 following a study 
by Dr. Bachman in 1924-5. They were the outgrowth of conferenoea attended 
by representatives of the various teacher- training institutions of the state 
and by members of the State Department of Education. The requirements fi- 
nally adopted follow the general lines recommended by Dr. Bachman. 

Conferences held by members of the survey 3taff with representatives 
of the six institutions visited revealed the fact that four of the institu- 
tions are in general sympathy with the requirements and that the academic 
departments of the University of North Carolina and of the North Carolina 
College for Women are very critical of ttiem and favor far less specific and 
rigorous requirements. These departments object both to the amount of the 
professional requirements and the rigidity of the subject-matter requirements. 
The situation is aggravated by the fact that the School of Education at Chapel 
Hill imposes professional requirements in addition to those specified in the 
state requirements. Furthermore, the psychology department in the North 
Carolina College for Women imposes a heavy requirement in psychology on all 
prospective teachers. Such situations engender hostility between the academic 
departments and the School of Education in these institutions and prevent the 
close cooperative effort that should obtain in improving the training of 
teaohers. 

jSvidenoe secured incidentally during the course of the survey showed 
that the requirements which are now in force have brought about two very def- 
inite results t first, they stimulated many colleges of the state which formerly 
gave little or no attention to the professional training of teaohers to provide 
specific sequences for prospective teachers; second, they forced the poorly 
financed teachers colleges to provide improved aoademic and professional 
courses as they reorganized their currioulums on a four-year basis. Visits 
from representatives of the state department have resulted in many desirable 
changes during the last few years in the sequences provided for teachers. 

The facts secured in ihls study, however, shew clearly that the rigid 



-36- 

requirements now in fore© have served "their period of usefulness. The patterns 
of training which must be provided for both elementary and secondary teachers 
may be vigorously attacked at various points. No scientific evidence is 
available which shows conclusively the type of training which meets the needs 
of teachers most effectively. There is need of much experimentation in this 
field. As long as the present requirements are rigorously enforced, it will 
be impossible for institutions to carry on experiments looking toward the im- 
provement of their teacher- training currioulums. What is even more unfortunate, 
rigid enforcement will prevent the development of an experimental attitude 
which would lead ultimately to progressive revision of professional curriou- 
lums. 

The statement should be added that very little consideration need be 
given at this time to the two-year curriculum of the teachers colleges inas- 
much as the demand for elementary teaohers with les3 than four years of 
training is rapidly decreasing. Even in the mountain sections of the state 
many counties have adopted the four-year standard. The presidents of all 
three teachers colleges believe that after the elapse of five years there 
will be so little demand for teaohers with two years of training that this 
currioulum could be discontinued. At present the students of all three 
teaohers colleges are advised strongly to eleot the four-year curriculum. To 
propose at this time radical changes in the requirements of the two-year cer- 
tificates, other than making them much less rigid, would probably renult in 
more oonfusion "than good. On the other hand, the four-year currioulums should 
be subjected to deliberate study at this time in order to bring about desir- 
able modifications. Whatever requirements are set up should be sufficiently 
liberal to permit intelligent experimentation and progressive reorganization. 

Supply and Demand for Teaohers 

In order to determine the number of teachers of various types that are 
prepared annually a request was sent by J. E. Hillman, Director of Teacher 



-37- 



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-38- 
Training in the State Department of Education, to all institutions in the 
state for the number of students enrolled at present who will fulfill require- 
ments for various types of certificates at the end of the current aoademio 
year. The data secured are summarized in Table I * The entries in the table 
show that at least 627 elementary teachers and 544 secondary school teachers 
will be available. (The latter number was obtained by dividing 1088, which 
is the total number of teachers preparing in various seoondary-sohool fields, 
by 2 which is the number of subjeots to which each teacher is usually 
assigned.) 

No data have been seoured thus far relative to the number of teachers 
needed annually in elementary schools. The statements made by representatives 
of various institutions indicate that most of the four-year graduates and a 
large majority of the two-year graduates were placed last year. It is be- 
coming increasingly difficult to plaoe the latter, however. 

With respect to the demand for secondary school teaohers data are 
available from which certain inferences can be drawn. Table II which was 
prepared by J. E. Hillman shows that there are 4539 white high-school 

Table II 
Total Number of White High-School Teachers 



Year 


Public 


Private 


Total 


1929-30 
1930-31 


4295 
4269 


373 
270 


4668 
4539 



teaohers holding positions this year. This is a decrease of 129 as compared 
with the number for 1929-30. Mr. Hillman reports that the average tenure is 
now about 9 years. On this basis approximately 500 teaohers will be required 
eaoh year. According to the data presented North Carolina is preparing eaoh 
year about the number of teaohers needed annually. These calculations, 



-39- 
however, leave out of aoeount several items, such as graduate students who 
go into high-sohool teaching and those who reoeive degrees at the end of 
summer terms. 

When the number of teachers being prepared in certain fields is con- 
trasted with the probable demand as nearly as it can be estimated, it becomes 
obvious that many more teachers are being provided in some fields, such as 
modern languages, than will be needed and that fewer teachers than are needed 
are being prepared in other fields such as commercial education. This phase 
should have careful consideration by all institutions which prepare teaohers. 

School of Education at Chapel Hill 

It is the purpose of this seotion of the report to present findings 
concerning the status of teacher training at Chapel Hill and to suggest 
tentative recommendations. 

The chief purpose of the School of Education as defined in the 
University Bulletin is "to prepare young men and women for the more re- 
sponsible teaching positions, principalships and superintendencies." Little 
or no emphasis is given to the research functions of the institution. 

Four-year curriculums are provided for prospective elementary and 
secondary school teachers. Students who pursue these sequences register 
in the School of Education. Graduate students in education who are candidates 
for advanced degrees register in the Graduate School of the University. 

The staff of the School of Eduoation includes 6 professors, 4 
assooiate professors, 3 assistant professors, and 2 instructors. These 
include 6 supervisors of practice teaching who also give courses in special 
methods. 

Graduate Work: The Department of Eduoation is a unit of the Graduate 
School and as such registers students for advanced degrees. There are only 
about 15 graduate students in education this year. The result is small 
registration in advanoed oourses. 



-40- 

Four functions of the Department; were mentioned in conferenoe with 
Dean Walkeri the training of principals, supervisors, superintendents % the 
training of teachers of education in teachers colleges and departments of 
education* the giving of courses in education to undergraduate students and 
to teachers in service} and research, irtiioh involves training technical 
workers in research as well as research work by individual members of the 
staff. 

A feeling of depression pervades a part of the faculty due to the 
following factss (a) small graduate registration, (b) absence of two lead- 
ing members of the staff, (c) lack of funds with which to carry on research 
projects, (d) failure of the administration to adopt and support a policy 
with respect to scholarly study and research. 

Training of Teachers of Secondary School Subjects: Six types of 
secondary school teachers are trained, namely, those preparing to teach 
Latin, French, English, mathematics, science, history, and other social 
sciences. Students are advised to take majors and minors in the following 
combinations » English and Latin; English and French} science and mathematics} 
and history and one other field. 

The junior-oollege requirements are essentially the same as they are 
in the liberal arts college with the following exceptions} one rather than 
two foreign languages is required} and mathematics is optional (nine out of ten 
take it, however). Each prospective teacher ohooses the fields in which he 
wishes to prepare about the end of the sophomore year. He is then plaoed 
under the direction of the member of the School who gives special methods 
in the major field selected* The sequences in both the major and minor fields 
are broadened out more than is oustomary in the Liberal Arts College in order 
to provide an adequate background for teaching in specif io fields. 

The Deans of the School of Education and of the Liberal Arts College 
irere questioned concerning the wisdom of transferring prospective teachers 
to the College of Liberal Arts, The Dean of the School of Education opposed 



-41- 

the change for the following reasons i the very rigid language and mathematics 
requirements in the junior college; the extreme specialization which prevails 
in the College; and the unsympathetic attitude of the College faculty toward 
professional courses. The Dean of the College believed that such a transfer 
would be advisable and practicable. He 6tated, however, that if prospective 
teachers registered through his office they should be assigned to a special 
adviser from the Department of Education for two reasons: first, members of 
academic departments were not familiar with the professional requirements 
and would be irritated if they had to learn them; and second, modifications 
would be necessary in the usual requirements of the College which could be 
administered to the student's best interest by someone -who was professionally 
concerned. 

The professional requirements of prospective high-8chool teachers 
include nine courses totaling 30 semester hoursj 

Introduction to Education. 

Introduction to Eduoational Psychology. 

Educational Psychology. 

General Methods in Secondary Education. 

Principles of Secondary Education. 

Special Methods in two subjects. 

Practice Teaching in two subjects. 

The fact should be pointed out that 30 semester hours are required by 
the School of Education as compared with 21 semester hours recommended by the 
State Board of Education. This results in much ill-feeling on the part of the 
academic faculty and seriously complicates the students' programs. 

The practice teaching facilities are unique in some respects. The 
Chapel Hill high school is used. Six members of -the college faculty supervise 
instruction in the high school in their respective departments, give special 
methods courses in the School of Education, and supervise the practice teach- 
ing. Owing to the limited number of students trained yearly, it has not been 



-42- 

necessary, as yet# to make other provisions for practice teaching. Any ex- 
pansion in the number of teachers trained would make necessary an expansion 
of practice facilities. The six supervising teachers referred to above have 
unusually broad training for such positions. 

Training of Teachers of Special Subjects j School librarians are the 
only teachers of special subjects trained at the University. 

Elementary Teachers : The students who major in elementary education 
are very limited in number. There are only nine primary and six grammar grade 
teachers registered in the present senior class. All students who take the 
two curriculums provided, enter by advanoed standing. About half oome from 
normal schools, the other half from junior colleges. 

Practice teaching is done in tiie elementary school of Chapel Hill 
which can accommodate about 24 each year. A request was made in the budget 
for 1929-31 for a training school at a cost of half a million. 

Free Tuition: By the act of the General Assembly of 1887 free 
tuition is given to prospective teachers of North Carolina who wi 11 agree to 
teach for two years in the state. Whereas this privilege was formerly 
granted by the deans of all divisions, it is now administered by the Dean of 
the School of Education. There was opposition to the concentration of this 
privilege at first, but the practice is no longer questioned. Practically 
all prospective high-school teaohers make use of the privilege, which means 
a saving of $75 a year. Less than half of -the elementary teachers apply 
for it. 

Registrations An examination was made of the registration in olasses 
during the academic year 1930-31 and for the first term of the current year. 
It showed that most of the small registrations were in three types of 
courses: (1) courses for prospective elementary school teachers, (2) 
courses for prospective high school teachers in the fields for which the 
demand is limited, and (3) courses for graduate students. 

The members of the Faculty of the School of Education furnished the 



-43- 

survey staff with detailed outlines of the courses for which they were 
responsible ■ An analysis of these descriptions convinced the survey staff 
that there is opportunity for the consolidation of the content of many of 
the courses offered. 

General Plans of the School of Eduoatiom The general plans of the 
School of Education for the future are summarized in a comprehensive report 
accompanying the budget for 1929-31. The specific needs and desired ex- 
pansions of the School were summarized under the following heads* 

1. The Training School for which $556,000 were asked for construction 
and library, and approximately a $50,000 addition to the annual budget. 

2. Elementary Education for which a budget of $65,000 per year was 
asked in addition to the present expenditures for training supervisors, 
experimental workers, principals, and expert teachers. 

3. Secondary Education for which provisions were requested in the 
near future for training teachers in fine arts, physical education, com- 
mercial education, and library science. 

4* Graduate work for which no special requests were made which are 
not included in 2 and 3 above. The need of strengthening the graduate work 
was emphasized, however. 

5. Bureau of Educational Research for which expansions were requested. 

6. Other needs, including a department of educational administration, 
a department of educational psychology, a department of rural education, and 
supplementing the work now done by individual members of the staff. 

It is obvious that the proposed program plaoes large emphasis on the 
training of teachers, supervisors, and principals. There is a division of 
opinion in the faculty concerning the wisdom of giving this field of service 
preeminence over the research functions of the Schools 

Provisional Recommendations i The recommendations that follow have 
significance only as the status of teacher training in the other institutions 
studied is understood. They will be listed here briefly and incorporated 



-44- 
later into the section on recommendations at the end of this report. 

1. The transfer of the training of elementary teachers to North 
Carolina College for Women. 

2. The reorganization of the School of Education into a Department 
of Education. 

3. The registration of prospective high school teachers through the 
office of the Dean of the College of Liberal Arts. 

4* The joint appointment of instructors giving special methods 
courses by the Department of Education and the subjeot-matter departments 
concerned. 

5. The development and expansion of the work in education to cover 
all the major fields of educational inquiry pertinent to North Carolina. 
Research and scholarly study should be the dominating aims of the Department. 
It should concentrate on the training of principals, superintendents, and 
supervisors. 

6. The discontinuance of free tuition privileges for any single group 
or class of students. 

State College of Agriculture 
and Engineering 

The chief aim of the School of Education is "to train principals and 
teachers for rural and urban high schools." In addition it prepares teachers 
of vocational agriculture, of industrial arts, and of regular high-school 
subjects. It also gives oourses in vocational guidance and industrial edu- 
cation. 

Four types of currioulums are provided in meeting the professional 
needs of students, namely, in 

1. Agricultural education. 

2. Industrial arts* 

3. Commercial subjects. 

4. Academic subjects taught in the high schools. 



-48=. 

Agricultural Educations President Brooks considers that the chief 
funotion of the School of Education is to train teachers of vocational agri- 
culture for the high schools of the state ■ 

The service of the School in this connection is indicated in a 
measure by the f&ot -that the registration in 1930~31 was 117 and for 1931-32 
is more than 100. Available data show that of the 162 teachers of agri- 
culture in the high schools of -die state 126 received their training at the 
College. They show also that of the 182 students iSms far graduated in 
vocational agriculture, 115 are teaching in th© state. Furthermore, the 
demand for teachers absorbs the number who graduate each year. Consequently 
very few have had to go to other states to find positions. 

The practice teaching is done in rural high schools of trie county or 
neighboring counties. Students assigned tc practice teaching spend five weeks 
at the school to which they are assigned devoting full time to their responsi- 
bilities. It is obvious that the training provided offers very practical 
contacts and experience. The supervision provided is limited to three visits 
from the colleee supervisors and about the same number from the state super- 
visors. It could be increased to advantage.) 

In view of the fact that Stat® College is the only institution which 
offers training; in vocational agriculture,; the work which is now in progress 
there should be continued and given such support as may be neoessary* This 
suggestion is subject to the recommendations made in Chapter II regarding 
transfer of agriculture to Chapel Hill. 

Industrial Arts Education: A detailed curriculum for the training of 
teachers of industrial arts is offered by the School of Education. The regis- 
tration as yet is very limited? 5 freehmen 9 2 sophomores, 1 junior, and 1 senior. 

There is no other oenter in the state for the training of high school 
teachers in this field. Of the 40 teachers of industrial arts in the state, 
only 10 were trained in the state t 30 came from 11 other states. 

The College of Engineer ixig provides 1 all the technical courses needed 
excepting one which has beer developed through cooperation with the School 



-46- 

of Education. In addition, the School of Education provides the general and 
specialized courses necessary. 

President Brooks deplores the situation in the field of industrial 
arts and recommends that the experiment be continued at that institution. If 
the demand for teachers of industrial arts is great enough to warrant the 
continuation of this curriculum, it should be maintained as long as the work 
in engineering is continued at Raleigh. 

Commercial Education: A currioulum in this field has been announoed. 
The registration is very small* 2 freshmen, 4 sophomores. No professional 
courses in the field have been provided as yet, although some have been 
announced. If a demand develops the courses will be given. 

President Brooks believes that the College can provide excellent 
training in commercial education through cooperation with its own School of 
Business, and the private business colleges of the city. He recognizes the 
fact that the University has a strong School of Commerce. 

For reasons which are given in Chapter II this type of work should be 
discontinued at State College and established at the College for Vfomen. 

Teachers of Academic Subjects* One hundred twelve students are 
registered in the School of Education who are preparing to teach academic 
subjects in high school: 21 freshmen, 25 sophomores, 21 juniors, 29 seniors, 
11 graduates, 3 irregulars, 4 specials. The men who pursue these courses 
are four-year students from all parts of the state. The women come chiefly 
from Raleigh. 

TOien the institution began to train teaohers of academic subjects it 
conceived its real function to be in the field of science. As the work 
actually developed, the chief emphasis has been on training in English and 
history. 

Graduate Work in Education: The School of Education provides to 
Raleigh teachers some graduate work in eduoation during the school year, and 
also during the summer. The enrollments during the academic year are too 



-47- 
small to justify the continuance of this work. The local demand could he 
supplied through the proposed unified extension service. 

Somewhat generous provision is made for courses by the School during 
the summer* Last year 385 attended) 129 men; 256 women* About 50 per cent 
take courses in education* 

Owing to lack of funds only $1700 are available for the Summer Term, 
1932. The faculty will be informed to this effect and told -tiiat their pay 
will be determined by the fees secured through registration* This is a 
poor basis on which to oonduot the Summer School and seems an appropriate 
time to discontinue the Summer School work in education at Raleigh and to 
oenter it at the University and at the North Carolina College for Women 
where the equipment is better and where stronger programs can be developed. 

Tentative Reoamaendationsi The facts which have been presented 
justify the following! 

1* That the training of teachers of agriculture and industrial arts 
be continued at Raleigh subject to the recommendations made under Chapter II. 

2* That the training of commercial teachers, and -the graduate training 
of teachers and school officers at Raleigh be discontinued* 

3* That the School of Eduoation be transformed into a Department of 
Education* Through the eliminations suggested in 2 above, the staff could be 
reduced materially* This Department of Eduoation should be made an integral 
part of the proposed Division of Education* 

4. That the speoial methods courses needed be developed through the 
cooperation of the subject-matter departments conoerned and the Department of 
Education. 

North Carolina College for Women 

The chief purpose of the College originally "was to provide in- 
struction for women who expected to enter the public school system of the 
state*" Approximately nine- tenths of its graduates render servioe in the 
publio or private sohools of the state* "For students who may not wish to 



te&ah, and who HU3t yet look to their orsn efforts for a livelihood, in- 
struction is offered In the 3omm6roial branches, irawing, industrial art, 
home economics, nursing, and other subjects, the mastery of which will suable 
then to become self-supporting." 

The registration of She College is 1678 for the present semester, 
distributed as follows* freshmen, 534; sophomores, 338| juniors, 271| 
seniors, 296; eojsmercial students who take a ono=>yaar non-orodit oourso, 208; 
special students, 33. The number of students from North Carolina is 1520 and 
from out of the state is 158. Approximately one-fourth of the students oome 
from Guilford, the county in whioh the College is located, and adjacent 
counties. Otherwise the College has a ori.de distribution throughout the state, 
only 3 counties having no resident atudent this year. The extent to -whioh the 
institution is engaged in the preparation of feeaohers is shown by the fact 
that of the 296 students sho are planning to take degrees in -June, 1932, 
285 are preparing to teaoh* Miss Class B® Byrd, Alumnae Secretary obtained 
rsports from 94 per sent of the students vtio were graduated In the ten classes 
from 1922 to 1931 inclusive* An analysis of these returns showed that in 
their first year out of college 74.7 per sent of the graduates engaged in 
some form of teaching* At the time the reports were made 50 per sent of 
the graduates were still teaching regardless of the time when they may have 
completed their study at the Colleges The majority of the graduates were 
engaged in teaching in the elementary schools. These data make obvious the 
importance of rooking adequate provision for the professional training of 
teachers at Greensboro. 

Training of Elementary Teachers; The first two years of the curricu- 
lum include about the same subjects as are required of liberal arts students 
during the junior-college periods The last two years are devoted largely to 
fulfilling state requirements for certification. As indicated elsawhere the 
survey staff believos the state requirements should be less rigid in order 
that the Division of Education -ijay be free to carry '>n progressive revision 



=,49- 
of its courses for slamentary teachers. 

Practise teaching i3 provided In the training school only. Thus far 
the College has been able to conform to the standards of the Amerioan Associ- 
ation of Teachers Collages ijith respect to the number of student teachers per 
teacher. The training school building has been -well planned for practice 
teaching, demonstrations, and experimentation. 

Training of High School Teachers* The training of high-school 
teachers should be continued at the College. However, "the subject-matter 
requirements as spaoifiad by the State Department of Education and the 
professional requirements as administered by the School of Education are the 
cause of much criticism and dissatisfaction among the academic departments 
of the College. On the other hand, the rigid requirement of the psychology 
department to the affect that all students must take elementary psychology 
before they my register for oouraes in educational psychology irritates the 
staff of the School of Education. If the state requirements ware lass rigid, 
it would be possible for the College to initiate experiments vsith respect to 
the types of courses and saquansas -which are aost appropriate in training 
toaohers. 

Furthermore, there is considerable dissatisfaction among academic 
departments relative to special-methods courses. Since these departments 
should be vitally concerned raith both the subject Batter and professional 
needs of high-school teachers, provision should be aside for the cooperation 
of all departments concerned in studying the problems involved in training 
teachers and in formulating surriouluas for them. 

Training Teachers of Special Subjactsi The facts relative to tha 
training of taachers of -special subjects san be summarized briefly. 

1. Twenty or mora teachers of music ara prapared each y®ar in a 
well~equipp©d d©partn®nt» No other state-supported institution in North 
Carolina has adequate facilities for this '"^ypa of training. 

2. Thirty or mora teachers of hoae economics are praparsd annually 



-60- 

in a well-organized and equipped department. Only one other state- supported 
institution provides a major in this field. The demand at present is absorb- 
ing the product of both institutions but it would be easily possible to meet 
all needs in this field through the work at Greensboro. 

3. From 17 to 20 women are prepared annually to direct work in 
physical education in high schools. No other state- supported institution 
makes broad provision for the training of women in this field. The material 
facilities at the College are excellent for this type of work. 

4. A curriculum for commercial teachers has been recommended by the 
faculty. The plan is to correlate this curriculum in part with the curriculum 
for secretarial workers whioh has been projected. The only other institution 
which has announced a curriculum for commercial teachers is State College. 
There is no provision -there for the necessary technioal training in some fields. 

Training of Principals and Supervisors: Prospective supervisors and 
principals, with but rare exceptions, do not register at the College during 
the academic year. It is obvious that such students should register where 
advanced work in education can be provided on a broad basis. Supplementary 
contacts with supervisory problems is also essential. An analysis of the 
list of courses now offered in education during the academic year shows that 
no specific provision is made at present for supervisors and other school 
officers. 

Summer School: The College provides a generous program of profe#- 
sional courses during the summer for elementary and secondary teachers and a 
limited sequence for supervisory officers. Thus far the registration has 
been largely undergraduate. Only 62 graduate students registered last summer, 
distributed among various departments as follows: education, 17} English, 11; 
French, 8; history, 7j home economics, 3} chemistry, 1} mathematios, 1; 
Bible, lj library science, 11. Thus far only 13 master's degrees have been 
granted. The wisdom of providing graduate courses for such a small number 
of students in different departments may be seriously questioned. 



-51- 

Reoommendationsj The facts presented Justify the following tenta- 
tive recommendations t 

1. That the training of high school teachers be oontinued at the 
College* The training of elementary school teachers should be continued for 
the present. Provision should be made for a study of the teachers colleges 
of the state in relation to the whole program of higher education. 

2» That the training of teaohers of the following special subjects 
and fields be continued! music, home economics, and physical education. 
This is the only branch of the University where provision need be made for 
the preparation of elementary school teachers. This suggestion is subject 
to the readjustments suggested in Chapter II. 

3. That the training of supervisors and school offioers be discon- 
tinued except as it may be desirable to us® the facilities for observation 
and practice in connection with the development of graduate instruction 
from Chapel Hill. 

4. That the training school reduce materially its activities in 
training student teachers and develop itself more largely into a demonstration 
and laboratory school. In order to achieve these ends, arrangements should 

be made with the sohool system of Greensboro to provide practice facilities 
in both elementary and secondary schools. 

5. That the School of Education be changed to a Department of Edu- 
cation coordinate with ether departments in the College. 

6. That instructors of speoial methods be members of the respeotive 
subjeot-matter departments and of the Department of Education. One of the 
major responsibilities of each instructor should be to secure the cooperation 
of both departments in the study of the professional problems involved in his 
field. 

General Conclusions 

The State Board of Education requires a total of twenty-one semester 



-52- 

hours* in eduoational psychology, principles of education^ methods and 
materials of teaohing f and practice teaching and observation. In addition, 
the requirements in subject-matter fields are prescribed in great detail, 
the number of semester hours whioh must be taken and, in some cases, the 
particular lines in whioh the teacher-in-training must be prepared. Certifi- 
cates issued by the Stat® Departaent arc not general but specify the lines 
in whioh teachers may give instruction* This teacher-training program is 
part of a state-wide plan of organisation whioh is designed to avoid the 
evils of expanded programs of ooursee conducted by teachers who themselves 
have no adequate acquaintance with the subjects in whioh they are attempting 
to give instruction. 

It is not the function of this survey to deal with the state program 
of teacher training exoapt ae it affects the three state institutions of 
higher eduoation» The obvious effect of the state requirements on the three 
state institutions has been to encourage ovepeaphaeis on professional courses, 
to cultivate antagonisms between sohcols of education and other divisions 
of the institutions, to hamper progressive experimentation, and, on the 
whole, to defeat the development of the highest sohclarly standards. 

Consultation with the officers of the State Department of Publie 
Instruction indicates that some of the unfavorable oonsequeneee of the state 
plan of certifioation are due to administration at the institutions and not 
to the requirements of the State Department It seems clear, however, that 
any detailed series of prescriptions, such ae are now in force in North 
Carolina, tend to inhibit wholesome development under the guidance of the 
state's intellectual leaders,, 

Go program of teacher training in the state can be suooeseful whioh 



Twenty-four seaester hours in the case of elementary school teachers. 



•45S- 

does not include "tti© constant^, direet e and sympathetic participation of the 
Stats Department of Public Instruction end of Hat> full faculty in each of 
the state institutions * He hard and fast requirement can be a substitute 
for intelligent cooperation and progressive revision of training programs. 

Conditions seem favorable for a general reorganisation of the work in, 
education in tiie state institutions of higher education* The supply of 
teachers for both secondary schools and elementary schools is now ampl6 t 
and it is possible to raise standards to a higher level. It will be possible 
in the elementary school to require very shortly of all teachers four years 
of preparation beyond the high school. In the high school the aim should 
be to require as soon as possible, oertainly within the next five years and 
possibly earlier j, the equivalent of the master's degree. 

It is impossible to overemphasise the fact that the establishment of 
higher standards requires iiie intelligent cooperation of the intellectual 
leaders of the state e The belief tiiat competency as a teacher depends 
entirely on knowledge of subject matter is still to be found among the members 
of college faculties in North Carolina. Adherence to this belief has become 
a matter of aoademio creed with some who are perhaps reinforced in their 
attitudes by the separatist policy of schools of education. Experience has 
justified the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and 
other bodies dealing with educational problems in setting up certain require- 
ments of a strictly professional type. An adjustment of aoademio requirements 
and professional requirements can be reached which will be of great advantage 
to education if ancient prejudices can be laid aside and institutions of 
higher education can come to recognize the fact that one of their major 
problems is the training of teachers who will be equipped with the best that 
institutions can provide in knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of the 
educational system, and the processes by which learning, can be stimulated. 

In order to bring about the development of education needed by the 
state., it is recommended! 



.64. 

1. That a Counoil representative of the three departments of 
education be appointed by the President to have under its consideration the 
possibilities of improvement in the training of teachers and the effeotive 
study of education. The latter is an aspect that has been too long neglected 
in North Carolina. In the opinion of the survey committee it is important 
that provision be made for this Counoil as there is need for a group of 
persons who shall be viewing the needs of the state as a whole in this 
field. 

2. That the Council in oharge of the School of Eduoation should 
have authority to arrange the details of organization, such as the distri- 
bution of courses, within each department of education. This Council should 
have power to revise arrangements from time to time as conditions dictate. 
Especially should this Council determine from time to time which institu- 
tion shall provide training for teachers of a particular type. In making 
such determinations the committee should take into account the competency 
and enthusiasm of special academic departments and should looate the work 
for teachers of a particular type at that institution where conditions are 
most favorable. These actions would be subject to approval by the President. 

Certain distributions of functions seem so obvious that they can 
now be recommended explicitly! 

a. Graduate work in eduoation should be centered at Chapel 
Hill, and there should be developed in this institution a 
strong department, oompetent to train the supervisors and 
administrators of the state, and to serve a3 a center for 
investigation of state problems. The University has to date, 
failed to realize on its opportunities in this field. 

b. The branch of the University at Raleigh should be the center 
at which teachers of agriculture and teachers of the indus- 
trial arts are trained to the extent needed by the state, 
sub jeot to the recommendations in Chapter II . 



-55- 

c. The training of elementary teachers in the University should 
be limited to Greensboro, subject to the statement made in 
connection with the specific recommendations made with reference 
to this work in relationship to the teachers colleges. 

d. The training of high-school teachers, other than those in 
agriculture and industrial arts should be centered either at 
Chapel Hill or at Greensboro. In some cases it will be legit- 
imate to train high-school teachers in special subjects at 
both of these institutions. Determining considerations of this 
last matter should be the competency and enthusiasm for teacher 
training on the part of the academic departments concerned. 

e. Training in home economics and training in music should be at 
Greensboro subject to the recommendations made in Chapter II. 

f. The training of school librarians should probably be located 
at a single center, and, in view of the developments at the 
state University in the newly organized library school, the 
University seems to be the natural center for such work in 
the future. It may b9 desirable to make arrangements for a 
limited amount of instruction in library science to be offered 
at Greensboro. This could be done by members of the faculty 
from Chapel Hill. 

g. Other adjustments in particular fields may properly be left 

to the President to make on the advice of the suggested Council. 

3. That the summer courses given in the three institutions should be 
reorganized under the supervision of a director of the Cummer Cession. The 
concentration of summer classes is certainly desirable. At present there is 
unfortunate duplication which results in numerous snail classes in the three 
institutions. 

4. That the staffs of t?ie several departments of education should be 
reorganized in such a way as to concentrate in the various institutions the 



=56- 

members of the faculty necessary bo -sarry on the functions alloeatad to those 
institutions. This will undoubtedly result in a material reduction in the 
educational staff, both -it Greansboro and at Raleigh. 

5. That all courses in methods and materials of teaching be given 
by staff members who belong both to the local Department of Education and 
the academic department concerned. 

6. That the State Department of Public Instruction should be requested 
to enter into a conference with the consolidated Division of Education and to 
use that agency as a laboratory for the continual and progressive revision 

of the requirements for oertifieation. 

7. That all professional reqirements in the three institutions be 
reduced at once to the minimum required by the State Department of Public 
Instruction and as soon as the consent of that Department can be secured, 

to the minimum required by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. 

8. That the Council on Education take steps to canvass the whole 
problem of professional training with a view to securing the most advantageous 
coordination of these requirements with those of academic departments. 

9. That the present legislation providing free tuition for teachers- 
in-training be repealed. 

10. That the present arrangement at the North Carolina College for 
Women with respect to prerequisites in psyahology be abandoned, and that the 
work of this Department be adjusted under the general principle recommended 
earlier — that there be a substantial reduction in professional requirements. 



CHAPTER IV 
SUPPLEMENTARY SUGGESTIONS 

There are many questions of importance in the programs of higher 
education that have baen developed in North Carolina to which no attention has 
been given, Questions of faculty training, salaries, teaching load, student 
personnel work, organization of the several institutions, admission require- 
ments, fine arts, physical aduoation, athletics, retirement provisions, etc. 
have not thus far 'been discussed specifically in this report. 

Th© majority of them will not be treated. The survey committee 
gathered information on many of these questions which was used in the 
formulation of this report. Comparative data were collected on salaries, 
teaching load, and preparation of faculty members. Differences were found, 
but they were not marked enough to constitute serious obstacles in the 
organization of the new University. Omission of these data has been deliberate. 
The survey committee was of the opinion that it was important to keep the real 
issues - the problems presented in the preceding chapters - clearly to the fore. 
Had the report dealt with the entire range of questions suggested there would 
have been danger of concealing the wore fundamental questione faced by the 
state in the future development of its program of higher education! However, in 
this final chapter a few questions of minor importance are briefly presented. 

Fees 

Each .Institution furnished the survey committee with a statement of 
fee3 uhorged students, Great variation exists. It is recommended that a3 high 
a degree of uniformity be provided as is practicable. There seems to be no 
reason for a greater variation in foes in the new University than would obtain 
if there had been an actual consolidation in the past of the branches on one 



-58- 
oampus. The same statement holds regarding admission requireiaents. 

In connection with the question of fees the committee wishes to call 
attention to the present legislation by which prospective teachers are not 
required to pay tuition. This legislation should be repealed. The committee 
is unable to discover any elements in the present situation to justify the 
oontinuanoe of the present practice. Furthermore, when a state faces as 
difficult a finanoial situation as exists in North Carolina at present, it may 
properly use this change of practioe as a source of inoreaeed income. The 
increase in funds resulting from the repeal of this legislation would materially 
help the new University to maintain standards through this period of depression 
as well as assist it in the realization of its larger purposes when there is 
an abatement of the present finanioal conditions. 

School of Medicine 

At Chapel Hill there is a two year medical sohool enrolling about 80 
students and costing approximately $80 s 000 a year. A few miles away is Duke 
University with a four-year medical school. Naturally a question arises 
regarding the wisdom of the University system in continuing its sohool. The 
indications are that the authorities of Duke University are desirous that its 
medical sohool should be regional rather than a looal institution. Relatively 
a small proportion of those completing the two-year course at Chapel Hill enter 
Duke. They attend institutions in various parts of the country. To date those 
students who have had the backing of the University medical school have been 
able to secure entrance to four-year schools after completing the two years of 
work at Chapel Hill, As long as this condition obtains, the University 
organization may continue its two-year program. When this ceases to be true, 
it would then appear to be wise to discontinue the School of Medicine. 

Home Demonstration Agents 

Mrs. Jane S. !£cKimmon furnished the survey committee with information 



-59- 

regarding the staff of home demonstration agents (white) of which there are 
sixty-one in the state. Persons engaged in this service should have not only 
a fundamental background in home economios suoh as would be obtained by means 
of four years of study, but they al60 need to be familiar with rural forces 
and trends of an economic and social character. Possibly they should also 
have some training in certain phases of agriculture, e. g., poultry raising. 
The state has made provision at Greensboro for giving the training in home 
economics, but no definite arrangements have been made for supplementing this 
preparation in those areas in which deficiencies obtain, .'or those engaging in 
the home demonstration service. 

An examination of the salaries paid agents, newly employed in the last 
three years, shows only one initial salary below $1800. The maximum paid was 
?2400. These salaries are not by any means too large, but they are distinctly 
better than women graduating in home economics at Greensboro obtain initially. 
The ages of these persons range from twenty-six years to forty-eight years, 
with most of them around thirty. These salaries and ages would seem to indicate 
that the special preparation needed to supplement the training in home economics 
should be given after the women have graduated in home economios and have 
engaged in high school teaching or similar work. It could be carried out 
through summer work given at Raleigh and organized especially for persons who 
have a background in home eoonomics training and wish to supplement this 
preparation so that they would be more adequately prepared in the phases of 
agriculture that are directly related to their work as home demonstration 
agents. The extension service could properly make this a definite requirement 
for admission to this phase of its work. The salaries paid are sufficient to 
justify this requirement. Twenty-five persons were taken into the service 
during the past three years - a number large enough to justify the development 
of the special training. In the opinion of the survey committee this problem 
should have consideration by the new University. The entire problem would be 
solved when the recommended transfers of work have been made. 



Veterinary Medioine 

The North Carolina State Veterinary Medioal Association hae presented 
to the survey committee a brief favoring the establishment of a school for the 
training of veterinarians as a part of the new University. The brief advocates 
locating the school at Chapel Hill. 

The survey committee has given careful consideration to this 
suggestion, and it is of the opinion that the State of North Carolina should 
not establish such a school at this time. It is led to this conclusion by the 
results of two studies which have been mada recently of the status of the 
preparation of veterinarians, The first of these studies was conducted by the 
United States Office of Education and the results were published in 1930 « 
The statements whioh follow are taken from this report: 

There is no need for a veterinary college in eaoh one of our forty- 
eight states. In fact, ten or twelve schools, eaoh with an average 
graduating class of from fifty to sixty would seem at the present 
time to be sufficient. 

Following this statement a map appears in the report, on which are 
shown the number of veterinarians in the several states and areas served by 
eaoh school. It is suggested that the veterinary colleges should be located 
with some consideration to the distribution of the profession in the United 
States. The report points out that this condition does obtain except for the 
South and Westo Conditions in the southern area are covered in the following 
statement: 

It will be noted that the number of veterinarians in the areas served 
by the veterinary collages of Alabama, and Georgia2 is very small, 
fewer than 450 in eaoh area. If these two veterinary colleges were 
united the combined demand of the two sections, as represented by 

Professional Veterinary Ledicine. Survey of Land-Grant Colleges and 
Universities, Vol* II, Part 5. 

^ North Carolina is included in the Georgia area. 



replacements in ths profession and by natural dev? ; shi be 

sufficient, tc support a strong schoo] me< ' ie, Ever. 

then the combined areas would not have the veterinary U tion 

represented by most of ths areas. 

The second source from which data have teen drawn is a rep - J : in 
the summer of 1931, tc the National Association of Veterinarians. That 
document presents a considerable tody of facti rial dealing wa 
veterinarians and the conditions of veterinary education in bh« ite 
Tt ends with a group of recommendations froi which the following sts 
are taken: 

The small enrollment in the present schools, as well ie many oti i 

factors^ indicates that the need is not for more sch - . 
At another clace in the report this statement occur': 

Something should be don; to awaken interest - the rete r.zan 

profession in states which have no schools, <& . 

should be provided in such states for those who wish t< ~v 

•veterinary medicine in one of the other states having scl 

The survey committee is of the crinion that there are e-.r-:-- ;e. c of 
specialized education for which the demand is not great enough to "ar n't each 
state undertaking to offer them, A single institution will serve s i 
area including several states* Ta this group belong medicine, librar sc 
architecture, textile engineerings forestry, etc. In the apis&on 
committee, veterinary medicine belongs in this group. The s 
wishes at tnis time to direct the attention of the state - 

of giving careful attention in the future tc regj jnal " felons <&i sr- 

taking netv types of specialized instruction and research. 



Report of Committ* of 1 3rican Veterinary Mediea] 

Association, 1951. 



-62- 
Retirement Provisicne 

Data were oollected on the ages of faculty members and major 
administrative officers at each of the institutions. The figures reveal several 
persons at each institution who have passed the age when in general they can 
render the hest service. Particularly is this true at Chapel Hill. These 
persons who have rendered long and valuable service to the state are continued 
after the period of largest usefulness as they can not well be dropped from the 
budget when to do so would subject then to genuine hardship. The survey 
committee is of the opinion that in justice to these persons and in fairness to 
the work of the new University, arrangements should be made for retiring 
allowances, as soon as tiie financial conditions will permit. 

Conclusion 

At sever u. points in this report, statements have been made by the 
survey committee expressing the vievr That there is much in the history of the 
three institutions it. which North Carolina may properly take great pride. It 
should be said that no attempt has been made to catalogue these deeds in full. 
Tc have done so in any complete fashicr would have required a report trans- 
cending the limits of this document. Furthermore, that was not the task 
assigned to the survey >. 3ns t ee, rhe committee was asked to suggest an 
administrative organization for the new University and to make recommendations 
regarding the allocation of functions, however, the survey committee desires 
to record its belief that the stats has racsived large returns on what it has 
invested in higher education. 

On the other hand, one finds life of these institutions much 
evidence of appreciation on the »^ [ . ' the people for the service rendered to 
the state. True there have been ebbs and ,"'. ii he leys'.'.-' •/ - h which the 
institutions hnvo received the support :>. the state, t '■••- i" the history 
of all publicly supported, education, kt fc] * ■.' istitu ions 

are in a depressed condition due to the ' ' ■ mi ■ ich they have 



-63- 
had to make in recent years. Particularly is this true at Chapel Hill. 

Publicly supported institutions must expect to share financial 
reverses with the public which supports them. However, the public should bear 
in mind, that continued financial depression of an institution may carry it to 
the point from which recovery will become very difficult. Years are required 
to develop a strong college or university, and a prolongation of the present 
conditions may put the higher educational institutions into a situation from 
which years will be required for recovery. If this should happen, the cost 
would be so great that the state might well hesitate to permit the starvation 
period to be long continued. Ar«a there other places in the state in which 
economies might be effected without the danger of dire results? This is a 
question which should challenge the attention of the leadership of North 
Carolina. 

Unfortunately, the survey committee has not been able to point to any 
large financial economies that could be effected immediately. This is partially 
due to the retrenchment which has taken place in expenditures on the part of 
the institutions during the past few years. The two most oonspicuous evidences 
of duplication were in business education and in engineering. The expenditures 
for the former at Raleigh were not large, nor in the case of the latter were 
they oonspicuous at Chapel Hill. 

However, financial economies are not the only economies to be 
considered in education. Suggestions have been made that, in the opinion of 
the survey committee, will make for increased efficiency in the state's 
program of higher education. If the changes are made, the benefits flovring 
from the stats';- program of higher education are certain to be greatly increased. 
The suggestions are submitted to the people of the state in the belief that if 
they are accepted, the new University will be set on the way to an even more 
distinguished career than those of its predecessors. 



Activities Undertakers by Graduates of the North Carolina 
College for "/oraeri tne First Year After Graduation 



Activities 
















Class Year and 


Size 






















96 i 


n 1922 


125 in 1923 


138 in 1924 


200 in 1925 


261 in 1926 


270 


i.n 1927 


275 


Ln 1928 


307 in 1929 


279 


n 1930 


260 in 1931 


Total 


- 2219 


No, 


% 


Ho. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


Educational: 














































Kindergarten-elementary 


46 


47.91 


53 


42,40 


66 


47.85 


89 


44.50 


120 


45.98 


110 


40,76 


138 


50.19 


165 


X53.75 


122 


43.71 


69 


25.75 


978 


44.14 


High 6chool 


21 


21.87 


42 


*33.60 


42 


30.46 


58 


29.00 


75 


28.78 


88 


32.59 


73 


26.56 


65 


21.17 


68 


24.36 


74 


27.59 


606 


27.39 


College 


4 


/4.17 


4 


3.20 


4 


2.89 


- 


- 


5 


1.92 


5 


1.85 


6 


2.18 


- 


- 


2 


0„72 


6 


1.85 


35 


1.57 


Substitute teaohing 


- 


. 


- 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1.15 


1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


2 


0.65 


1 


0.36 


7 


X 2.59 


15 


0.67 


Supervisory work 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


1 


0.72 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.37 


3 


1,09 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


8 


0.36 


Private teaching (music) 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


1 


O.SS 


2 


0.74 


- 


- 


E 


. 0.98 


- 


- 


1 


0.37 


10 


0.45 


General 


1 


3(1,04 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


3 


0.13 


Professional: 














































Librarian 


1 


1.04 


- 


_ 


3 


2.17 


- 


- 


2 


0.76 


1 


0.37 


5 


1.82 


4 


1,30 


12 


/4.30 


6 


• 2.22 


34 


1.53 


Journalist 


. 


. 


V 3 


<2.40 


. 


- 


. 


- 


1 


0.38 


3 


1.11 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




1 


0.37 


8 


0.36 


Dietician 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


X 0.76 
0.76 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.33 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


6 


0.26 


Laboratory technician 


_ 


- 


1 


0.80 


. 


- 


1 


0.50 


2 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


4 


1.30 


1 


0.36 


3 


1.11 


13 


0.58 


Research worker 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


0.38 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


\ 0.72 


- 


- 


3 


0,13 


Welfare worker 


- 


- 


1 


/0.80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.37 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.33 


- 


- 


2 


0.74 


7 


0.31 


Artist 


- 


- 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


General 






















1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


2 


0.65 


2 


0,72 


- 


- 


6 


0.26 


Business: 














































Clerk 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


0.72 


2 


1.00 


1 


0.38 


- 


- 


3 


1.09 


6 


1.95 


3 


1.08 


5 


1.85 


21 


0.93 


Secretary-bookkeeper 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


- 


- 


3 


. 1.15 


1 


0.37 


- 


- 


1 


0.33 


2 


0.72 


3 


1.11 


12 


0.52 


Managing a shop 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


- 


4 


1.48 


4 


0.18 


General 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.50 


2 


/ 0.76 


1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


- 




1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


7 


0.31 


Home making: 














































At home (single) 


- 


- 


2 


1.60 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


10 


3.83 


11 


4.07 


9 


3.27 


16 


5.21 


30 


10.75 


32 


11.95 


112 


5.05 


Exclusively 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


2 


1.45 


5 


2.50 


5 


1.92 


4 


1.48 


6 


2.18 


6 


1.63 


5 


1.79 


13 


.■: 4.81 


46 


2.07 


Plus occupation 


- 


- 


2 


\1.60 


- 


- 


1 


0.50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


3 


1.11 


6 


0.26 


Miscellaneous: 














































StudeEt 


5 


5.21 


5 


4,00 


6 


4.34 


17 


8.50 


5 


1.92 


21 


7.78 


16 


5.83 


16 


5,21 


20 


7.17 


36 


X13.62 


147 


6.61 


Part-time worker 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


0.50 


- 


_ 


1 


0.37 


- 


- 


2 


0.65 


1 


0.36 


- 


- 


5 


0.22 


Unemployed 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Resting 


1 


/1.04 


1 


0.80 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.76 


1 


0.37 


- 


- 


2 


0.65 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


0.31 


111 
Total 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


1 


0.38 


2 


0.74 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.33 


1 


0.36 


" 


" 


8 


0.36 


80 


8?. 32 


117 


93.60 


129 


93.48 


178 


39.00 


241 


92.33 


255 


94.45 


267 


97.09 


296 


96.42 


276 


98.92 


268 


100.00 


2107 


94.96 


Number deoeased 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


1 


0.72 


_ 


_ 


5 


1.92 


4 


1.48 


1 


0.36 


3 


0.98 


1 


0.36 


- 


- 


16 


0.72 


Number of reports incomplete 
Total 


16 


16.68 


7 


5.60 


8 


5.80 


22 


11.00 


15 


5.7E 


11 


4.07 


7 


2.55 


8 


2.60 


2 


0.72 


- 


" 


96 


4.32 


96 


100.00 


125 


100.00 


138 


100.00 


200 


100.00 


261 


100.00 


270 


100.00 


275 


100.00 


307 


100.00 


279 


100.00 


268 


100.00 


2219 


100.00 



64- 



APPENDIX B. 

Activities in Which Graduates of the North Carolina College for 
Women, 1922-31, inolu3ive, Were Engaged in the Autumn of 1931 



Activities 


















Class Year and 


Size 






















96 in 1922 


125 


Ln 1923 


138 


Ln 1924 


200 i 


n 1S25 


261 i 


n 1926 


270 


m 1927 


275 


m 1928 


307 


in 1929 


279 in 1930 


268 i 


n 1931 


Total 


- 2219 


No, 


% 


No. 


rL. 


No. 


1° . 


No. . 


% 


Ho. 


% _ 


No. 


% 


No. 


1' 


No. 


% 


No. . 


=, t 


No. 


f, 


No. 


% 


Eduoational: 














































Kindergarten-elementary 


10 


10.40 


17 


13.60 


18 


13.12 


39 


19.50 


53 


20.33 


61 


22.59 


87 


31.32 


116 


38.05 


114 


41.04 


69 


25.75 


584 


26.32 


High school 


8 


8.33 


20 


16.00 


20 


14.49 


22 


11.00 


38 


14.56 


49 


18.15 


61 


22.46 


74 


24.02 


74 


26.32 


74 


27.59 


440 


19.84 


College 


2 


2.08 


4 


3.20 


3 


2.17 


4 


2.00 


6 


2.29 


4 


1.48 


5 


1.82 


2 


0.65 


4 


1.44 


5 


1.85 


39 


1.75 


Substitute teaching 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


. 


- 


- 


1 


0.38 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.33 


2 


0.72 


7 


2.59 


12 


0.54 


Supervisory work 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


2 


0.76 


2 


0.74 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.33 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


12 


0.54 


Private teaching (music) 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


1.00 


. 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


2 


0.65 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.37 


8 


0.36 


General 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


3 


1.15 


1 


0.37 


4 


1.45 


2 


0.65 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.37 


16 


0.72 


Professional: 














































Librarian 


- 


- 


3 


2.40 


3 


2.17 


4 


2.00 


7 


2.69 


5 


1.85 


9 


3.27 


5 


1.63 


14 


5.02 


6 


2.22 


56 


2.62 


Journalist 


1 


1.04 


2 


1.60 


- 


- 


2 


1.00 


1 


0.38 


1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.33 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.37 


12 


0.54 


Dietician 


- 


- 


2 


1.60 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


2 


0.76 


. 


- 


3 


1.09 


- 


- 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.37 


10 


0.45 


Laboratory technician 


1 


1.04 


3 


2.40 


- 


= 


1 


0.50 


1 


0.38 


2 


0.74 


2 


0.72 


5 


0.98 


2 


0.72 


3 


1.11 


18 


0.81 


Resaaroh worker 


- 




- 


- 


1 


0.72 


- 


. 


1 


0.38 


1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


- 


- 


1 


0.36 


- 


- 


5 


0.22 


Welfare worker 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


- 


- 


1 


0.50 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


0.36 


4 


1.30 


2 


0.72 


2 


0.74 


11 


0.49 


Artist 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.50 


1 


0.38 


1 


0.37 


1 


0.36 


- 


_ 


1 


0.36 


- 


_ 


5 


0.22 


General 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


3 


1.50 


- 


- 


4 


1.48 


- 


" 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


9 


0.41 


Business: 














































Clerk 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


- 


- 


1 


0.50 


2 


0.76 


4 


1.48 


5 


1.82 


6 


1.95 


_ 


. 


5 


1.86 


24 


1.08 


Secretary-bookkeeper 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


4 


2.00 


7 


2.69 


7 


2.59 


4 


1.45 


8 


2.60 


5 


1.80 


3 


1.11 


40 


1.80 


inf a shop 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.72 


- 


- 


1 


0.38 


1 


0.37 


- 


. 


., 




1 


0.36 


4 


1.48 


8 


0.36 


General 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1.53 


- 


- 


2 


0.72 


1 


0.33 


1 


0.36 


1 


0.37 


9 


0.41 


Home making: 














































At home { single) 


1 


1.04 


1 


0.80 


4 


2.89 


5 


2.50 


10 


3.83 


10 


3.70 


10 


3.63 


15 


4.79 


13 


4.68 


32 


11.95 


101 


4.55 


Exclu.i 


36 


37.54 


43 


34o40 


55 


39.74 


58 


29.00 


71 


27.23 


67 


24.83 


43 


15.73 


28 


9,04 


18 


6,38 


13 


4.81 


432 


19.49 


PIUS oci" 


15 


15.61 


17 


13.60 


18 


13.14 


23 


'.\1.50 


23 


8.80 


29 


11.75 


14 


5.10 


16 


5.21 


5 


1.80 


3 


1.11 


163 


7.35 


Miscellaneous: 














































Student 


1 


1.04 


1 


0.80 


1 


0.72 


3 


1.50 


4 


1.53 


3 


1.11 


5 


1.82 


9 


2.93 


10 


3.60 


36 


3.62 


73 


3.29 


Part-time worker 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


. 


_ 


_ 


1 


0.38 


1 


0.37 


_ 


_ 


„ 


_ 


_ 


. 


„ 


_ 


2 


0.09 


Unemployed 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


. 


_ 


_ 


2 


0.72 


_ 


_ 


_ 


. 


_ 


. 


2 


0.09 


Resting 


1 


1.04 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1.00 


_ 


_ 


2 


0,74 


3 


1.09 


. 


_ 


. 


„ 


_ 


. 


8 


0.36 


111 

Total 


" 


" 


2 


1.60 


1 


0.72 


1 


0.50 


2 


0.76 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.65 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


0.36 


80 


83.32 


117 


93.60 


129 


93.48 


178 


09.00 


241 


92.33 


255 


94.45 


267 


97.09 


296 


96.42 


276 


98.92 


268 


100.00 


2107 


94.96 


dumber deceased 


- 


- 


1 


0.80 


1 


0.72 


_ 


_ 


5 


1.92 


4 


1.48 


1 


0.36 


3 


0.98 


1 


0.36 


_ 


_ 


16 


0.72 


Number of reports incomplete 

Total 


16 


16.68 


7 


5.60 


8 


5.30 


22 


11.00 


15 


5.75 


11 


4.07 


7 


2.65 


8 


2.60 


2 


0.72 


- 


- 


96 


4.32 


96 


100.00 


125 


100.00 


138 


100.00 


200 


100.00 


261 


100.00 


270 


100.00 


275 


100.00 


307 


100.00 


279 


100.00 


268 


100.00 


2219 


100.00 



65 



Report 

to the 

North Carolina Commission 

on 

UNIVERSITY CONSOLIDATION 



Guy Stanton Ford 
F. L. McVey 
and 
Geo« A. Works 

May, 1932 

This copy is a preprint of Chapters V, 
VI, and VII of the report of the survey 
committee and is subject to correction 
of errors and verbal changes. In the 
final report Chapters III and IV of the 
preprint will be placed in reverse order. 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Pag© 

V« Engineering and Industry ........ 64 

VI* Commerce and Business Education. ....... .... 72 

Vile Adult Education. •••*•••••■••••••••■••••• 92 

Appendices 



Appendix 

C. Average Score and Standard Deviation on High-School Test of 
Students of Commerce and Business Administration 

D» Tentative Program for Training Teachers of Commercial Studies 
for High Schools in North Carolina at the North Carolina 
College for Women 



-ii- 



CHAPTER V 
ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRY 

The engineering tradition at Chapel Hill may be traced back to the 
founding of the University in 1795, in the early year3 as a thin line broken 
only by the suspension of the institution in the period of reconstruction, and 
in recent years as a vigorous growth. Before 1890, engineering was only an 
incidental subjeot for the A.B. degree* In that year a definite curriculum 
was established in the Department of Engineering and Mathematics, which was 
expanded into the Department of Applied Sciences in 1904 and became a distinct 
school in 1908. The present School of Engineering was oreated in 1922. Its 
organization and program show the influence of the Harvard Sohool of 
Engineering, from which many of its leading professors have been drawn, and 
include in modified form some of the features of the cooperative plan first 
introduced at the University of Cincinnati and later modified by the University 
of Pittsburgh and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology* 

The University was recognized in 1867 as the recipient of the state's 
land-scrip rights under the Morrill Aot, but was never able — or possibly 
willing — to carry out its practical intent by establishing "colleges of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts." As a result of agitation by the agricul- 
tural and industrial interests, the University was forced in 1887 to relinquish 
these rights to a new institution, "The North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts." Certain citizens of Raleigh had previously taken steps to 
establish by popular subscription an industrial sohool for "instruction in 
wood-working, mining, metallurgy, praotical agriculture, and such other 
branches of industrial education as may be deemed expedient*" The two efforts 
were merged and the new College was opened at Raleigh in 1889. In 1917, the 
General Assembly changed the name to "The North Carolina College of Agriculture 

-64- 



-65- 

and Engineering." These brief historical notes may serve as an introduction 
to the problems faced by North Carolina in the coordination and further 
development of its programs of higher education in engineering and industry* 

Two fairly distinct types of technical education are proposed for the 
new University system* One prepares for the professional branches of 
engineering and the other for teohnloal and executive work in speoifio indus- 
tries* The two have elements in common and can work to advantage side by side, 
but the survey committee feels that they should be encouraged to develop along 
different lines* It therefore recommends that separate divisions of organisa- 
tion be set up, one for engineering and one for industries* 

In seeking a plan of organization and of location, for these divisions, 
which in the long run will offer the greatest advantage to the state, four 
major possibilities were considered! 

1* To maintain the present schools at Raleigh and at Chapel Hill, but 
to set up within the University organization such a clear division of aims 
and of fields that duplication and competition will be reduced to a minimum* 
This plan has the advantage of expediency, in that it does the least damage to 
existing loyalties and vested interests, and is therefore least likely to meet 
organized opposition* In the longer perspective, however, the disadvantages 
seem clearly to outweigh this advantage* If septate schools are maintained, 
duplication can not be eliminated, either in tht ■:.■■. cineering or the scientific 
departments* The attendant division of resources would make it difficult for 
either school to reach and to hold a plaoe of the highest rank* An aotual 
division of fields in engineering would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to 
achieve without a difference of standards* Neither ©enter would willingly 
aooept the lower position in the academic soale* While the aotual overlapping 
between Chapel Hill and Raleigh has been more apparent than real, the need for 
two engineering schools differing in type will be greatly diminished if a 
strong school of industries is built up* The two engineering schools are not 
far enough apart to serve distinct regional areas, and there is no apparent 



-66- 
need to provide separately for distinct groups in the population. Considering 
the resouroee of the state, it will undoubtedly be able to build up a stronger 
organization for teohnical education in a unified location than it can afford 
to maintain at two separate centers* 

2. To consolidate all teohnical education at Raleigh. If this plan 
should be oarried out in a thorough-going fashion, Raleigh should also become 
the principal center of the fundamental scientific departments with which 
engineering and industry are allied. A less effective alternative, from the 
viewpoint of the teohnical divisions, would be to make Chapel Hill the 
prinoipal center of the scientific departments and to maintain servioe units 
of staff and equipment at Raleigh. 

The first alternative, with its concentration of scientific facilities 
and all related professional schools at Raleigh, would leave Chapel Hill as a 
oenter of purely humanistio studies, both liberal and professional. This 
artificial separation of the University would have little to recommend it 
other than local expediency. Engineering has increasing affinities with law 
in the field of patents, with eoonomios in its relations to business, with 
politioal science in its relations to city planning and administration, and 
with psychology in its relations to industrial organization and personnel. 
The limited time available in the teohnical curricula for humanistic studies 
adds to the importance of a broadening environment and of personal contacts 
with other groups of teachers and students* 

Weight should also be given to the fact that the present nucleus of 
organization and personnel at Raleigh, while relatively efficient in its 
present sphere of work, scarcely affords the foundation for a scientific 
school of notable rank. The staff inoludes few men of the first rank, either 
in point of training or of professional attainments. The scientific equipment 
is inadequate for work of an advanced grade. In general, the plan of grouping 
all scientific and teohnical work at senior levels at Raleigh oould not be 
recommended for pieoemeal execution. The process of reorganization would 



-67- 
involve conflicts of personal interests and of viewpoints which could scarcely 
be composed in less than a generation. If the state were in a financial 
position to carry out a plan of transfer and consolidation on an ample scale 
at one step, the chanoes of sucoess would he greatly increased; otherwise, 
they seem precarious. If only the engineering school at Chapel Hill were to 
he transferred without other measures to strengthen the organization at 
Raleigh, the imme diate result might be little more than a relocation of the 
portable equipment. Much of the best research equipment for hydraulic and 
sanitary engineering is of fixed character and would remain at Chapel Hill. 
It seems highly probable that the present engineering staff and student body 
at Chapel Hill would be scattered among other institutions. The Southeast 
would thus lose its only existing oenter of postgraduate work in engineering 
on a genuinely advanced level, for the problematic creation at some future 
time of an enlarged institute of technology for which the present foundations 
at Raleigh are inadequate* 

If the second alternative were chosen and the scientific departments 
at Raleigh were maintained at a service level only, the engineering school 
would certainly not rise above a routine level of excellence, and the proposed 
Division of Industries would be seriously limited. Postgraduate work of a 
high order would be impracticable, and little could be attempted in either 
engineering or industrial research beyond the simpler practical problems. If, 
on the other hand, the scientific departments should be built up to high levels 
at both centers, the expensive duplications would offset whatever savings 
might result from the consolidation of the engineering schools. 

3. To consolidate the more general engineering departments at Chapel 
Hill, and to incorporate the more specialized branches, together with the 
present Textile School into a Division of Industries which would remain 
permanently at Raleigh. Under this plan, courses for the training of teachers 
of industrial branches would be centered at Raleigh. A junior college could 
also be maintained at Raleigh to prepare students for the senior divisions at 



-68- 
other centers of the University system. Students of engineering could thus 
take the first two years of their course either at Raleigh or at Chapel Hill 
but would be concentrated at the latter oenter for the last two years of their 
course* 

This general plan contemplates that "the principal center of teaching 
and research in the basic sciences would remain at Chapel Hill* The engineer- 
ing school would have the advantage of intimate association with these 
departments* The Division of Industries would in time require scientific 
facilities beyond those commonly afforded by mere service departments. The 
same would probably be true of its relations to economics and commerce, and 
in only a lesser degree to hygiene, medicine, law, and public welfare* 

The immediate advantage of this plan lies in the possibility of ™iHng 
effective use of the present buildings and much of the present equipment at 
Raleigh* The potential disadvantages, however, turn the balance against the 
plan* 

4* To adopt as a policy the ultimate consolidation of all scientific 
and technical divisions, except at the junior college level, at Chapel Hill* 
The obvious intent of the plan is to eliminate all duplications, to minimize 
all conflicts of interests, to assure the most intimate association of the 
humanistic, scientific, and technical divisions, and to stimulate the largest 
degree of cross-fertilization in the intellectual and social life of the new 
University* Within the finanoial resources of the state, it is felt that no 
other plan can assure the best in scientific and technological education, and 
this is the plan that is recommended. 

The grounds for this recommendation are implicit in the discussion of 
the three other plans considered* Taking the scientific and engineering 
departments together, the present foundations at Chapel Hill are more nearly 
adequate for a plan of consolidation than those at Raleigh* The gradual 
transfer of personnel and equipment to Chapel Hill involves less risk and 
difficulty than transfers in the reverse direotion* A possible exception may 



-69- 

exist in the case of the Textile School* As an alternative to incorporating 
it into the University at Chapel Hill, the state may wish to consider 
transferring it to some leading center of the textile industry and expanding 
it into a specialized textile institute on lines similar to the institution 
at Lowell, Massachusetts, or preferably to the famous school at Reutlingen 
in Germany* The problem of coordinating research for the textile industry at 
Chapel Hill and praotioal instruction and development work at some other 
center does not appear insuperable* 

If the general policy recommended in plan 4 is adopted, it should be 
carried into effect as rapidly as considerations of economy and of expediency 
will permit. With these ends in view, the following immediate recommendations 
are madet 

1* A regrouping of the present Departments at Raleigh into separata 
Divisions of Engineering and of Industries. Suggestions have already been 
outlined in the discussion of the third general plan for the set-up of the 
Division of Industries* 

2* Placing the engineering work at Chapel Hill and at Raleigh under 
one coordinating head, with temporary provision for local supervision at each 
oenter* 

3* Organizing both engineering schools into Departments of Civil, 
Mechanical, Electrioal, and Chemical Engineering, with a professor in charge 
at eaoh local center and departmental committees on coordination of programs 
at the two centers* 

4* Selection of a director for the Division of Industries* The 
position would require a man of wide exeoutive experience, broad knowledge of 
industries, high promotional ability, and ample experience as an organizer 
and coordinator of educational programs* 

5* Appointment of heads for each of the schools included in the 
Division of Industries* 

6* A detailed study looking to the removal of the four general 



-70- 
engineering departments from Raleigh to Chapel Hill as soon as adequate 
laboratory and dormitory accommodations can be provided at the latter center 
and the present buildings at Raleigh oan be transferred to tiie Division of 
Industries, to the proposed junior oollege, or to other uses* 

7. A detailed study looking to the provision of effective equipment 
for the several schools of the Division of Industries* The present Textile 
Sohool is in need of considerable modernization. The equipment in ceramics is 
excellent of its kind, but may need to be enlarged if it is to cover inclu- 
sively the field of earth produot6* A school of wood products might take over 
the present wood shops, but it would need a much more varied equipment* 

The consolidation at Chapel Hill of the present engineering labora- 
tories from Raleigh and Chapel Hill would give the new University unusually 
effective facilities in hydraulic and sanitary engineering, ample facilities 
in highway engineering and in surveying, and reasonably adequate facilities in 
structural engineering* The combined equipment in electrical engineering is 
generous in amount and excellent in quality on the side of dynamo machinery. 
The light current side dealing with oommunioations, electronics, and the 
technology of instruments and controls, is less ample and needs further 
development. In view of the state's leading position in the power industry, a 
greater development in the high-potential field seems desirable* The oombined 
equipment in mechanics and in meohanical engineering would be fairly adequate 
in the field of heavy materials and of heat power. Further provision might 
well be made for the lighter tests of materials, inoluding fatigue studies and 
microscopic examination, also for the study of hydraulic machinery. The 
present equipment for chemical engineering at the two oenters is largely com- 
plementary and would require only moderate additions after the consolidation 
has been effected* 

The cooperative plan now in effect at the engineering sohool at Chapel 
Hill, under ifcioh students spend definite periods in assigned work in indus- 
tries, appears to have worked well and is worthy of continuation. If this is 



-71- 
done, machine shops at Chapel Hill might be limited to laboratory and demon- 
stration purposes rather than detailed instruction in operations. It would be 
desirable to make a detailed study of the possible application of the 
cooperative plan in the proposed Division of Industries before undertaking . 
large-scale additions to its equipment. 

The principal capital expense in the consolidation at Chapel Hill of 
the engineering departments -would be for a new building. In round figures, an 
outlay of from $300, 000 to #500,000 would be requisite to provide adequate 
classroom and laboratory space. Assuming that the present total enrollment in 
engineering and industries is to continue, no saving is to be expected in 
operating expense. Unit costs, both at Chapel Hill and at Raleigh, are now at 
the lowest level consistent with educational efficiency. The salaries for 
senior members of the staff at Chapel Hill are far below the levels in com- 
parable institutions in the North and East. The disparity between Raleigh and 
comparable centers is less pronounced. Personal loyalties may be counted upon 
to tide over t2ie present economio emergenoy, but it is only a question of time 
until the scale of compensation must be greatly increased, or all thought 
abandoned of placing the teohnical divisions in a position of outstanding 
regional leadership. The opportunity to achieve this position is now particu- 
larly open and attractive, but it oan not be assumed that it will remain so 
for a long period. Consolidation on the lines suggested in the last plan is 
believed to offer North Carolina an unequalled opportunity, in view of the 
present division of educational forces in all the neighboring states. 



CHAPTER VI 
COMMERCE AND BUSINESS EDUCATION 

Schools of business administration hare boon introduoed into the our- 
ricula of Amerioan universities within the last quarter of a century* It is 
true that the Wharton Sohool of Finance and Commerce was established at the 
University of Pennsylvania as early as 1888, but the real development in this 
field of higher education began some twenty years later. Since then the prin- 
cipal universities have introduoed curricula in the field of business educa- 
tion. The Amerioan Association of Collegiate Schools of Business was organised 
in 1919 and at present it numbers forty-five in its membership. The fact that 
these schools are still in their infancy and that the Association has not yet 
been able to set forth definite standards are important factors in determining 
the place of such institutions in the plan of higher education in North 
Carolina. 

An explanation of the rapid growth in business schools on the oolle- 
giate level is readily found in the changing oharaoter of Amerioan business 
and industrial life. The twentieth century has witnessed a oomplete transfor- 
mation in business methods and industrial relationship. This change has had 
a profound effeot upon our social institutions. Markets have been expanded, 
individual plants have increased in size, and financial institutions have 
taken on newer functions . The whole scheme of production and distribution has 
suddenly become intensely complicated; the development of machinery and the 
introduction of mass methods of production have made possible an enormous in- 
crease in the productive capacity of labor. New industries have arisen which 
far surpass in size and influence anything that had been known but a generation 
ago. 

In these respects the State of North Carolina has not only shared but 

-72- 



-75- 
has been an outstanding example of the dynamic characte of oar American 
civilization* This state has not only introduced newer types of production, 
but at the same time has been converted from a predominantly agricultural 
community, to one in whioh manufacturing plays a dominant role* It is likely 
that this industrial development will continue in the future due to the 
exceptional resources in the state and -the advantages it has in several fields 
of manufacture* 

The state is eoneerned with the proper direction of these institutions 
in the interests of the community as a whole* The spirit of Intense 
individualism that has guided the early development of American life can not 
continue in the face of the great corporate organizations that are at present 
controlling our economic destinies* It is important, therefore, for the state 
to insure an infiltration Into the of fioer ships of its business concerns of 
trained men ready to oope with the problems of production and distribution and 
aware of their social responsibilities* It is to oope with these problems that 
business education is supported from public funds. 

Levels of Business Training 

Training in business subjects should be given with a view to meeting 
the needs of industry from the viewpoint of the well-being of the state* To 
the extent -that the business interests of the state are able to utilize the 
resources available in the most effective way possible consistent with the 
standards of conduct reoognized as essential to the welfare of its workers, 
the state may expeot to prosper, both in the material well-being and the 
culture of its people* 

The State of North Carolina has reoognized its responsibilities in the 
training of individuals going into its industries by organizing and supporting 
several technical schools including those in agriculture and engineering and 
one in the techniques of the textile industry* The Textile Sohool was or- 
ganized in direot response to the needs of an industry that has grown in size 
and importance in recent years* 



-74- 

Likewise, the state has recently assumed its obligation of training 
individuals entering the executive field. Formerly the law school was the 
sole training ground of collegiate grade for business. In a sooiety in whioh 
techniques are simple and the organization of business enterprise is not com- 
plicated, the law affords the most effective type of training for business 
administration. Under such ciroumstanoes the problems of administration are 
ohiefly legal in character involving the equities of individuals in commercial 
transactions. In the complicated organization of industry as we find it today, 
however, administration assumes a role of importance equal to that of the law 
and is definitely tending to surpass it in significance. 

The administration of business enterprise today may be divided into 
three distinct fields: (1) the legal relationships involved in all commercial 
transactions, (2) technical processes, and (3) organization and administration. 
Training for entrance into positions of responsibility in the first of these 
is provided for in the law schoolj the seoond, in engineering and the various 
industrial and trade sohoolsj the third field should be supplied by institutions 
affording instruction in business. 

The specific place of the business school in the educational system 
can be determined only on the basis of an analysis of the occupational levels 
in business* These may be classified roughly under the following heads: (1) 
the business owners and investors? (2) salaried, major executives j (3) special- 
ists such as aocountants, statisticians, economists, etc.j (4) intermediate, 
salaried exeoutivesj (5) minor exeoutivesj and (6) clerical and routine workers. 
In this classification there may be seen three fairly definite levels: the 
upper, the intermediate, and the lower. 

These three levels also indicate the proper allocation of training 
functions in eduoational institutions. The routine and clerical workers of 
the lower level oan be provided from secondary sohools. Those in the upper 
levels need a breadth of training that can be aoquired only in institutions 
of collegiate grade. Those whose positions fall in the intermediate groups 



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are the subject of speoial consideration. Their needs are not as extensive as 
those who will enter into the more responsible executive positions, yet their 
functions involve the making of decisions of greater significance than those 
who occupy positions involving clerical routines. It is possible that in the 
future special short courses in administration, above the high school level 
but not directly connected with the formal university courses, may be found as 
the solution to the training problem for this group» 

The educational system of the state should provide training for those 
who are to fit into the business structure according to their individual ca- 
pacities. It is a waste of state funds to attempt to train individuals for 
positions beyond their indicated abilities* Furthermore, it is contrary to 
the best interests of the individual to attempt to equip him with knowledge 
for occupations far above those which he may be expected to fill in later life, 
The higher administrative positions are bound to be relatively scarce and the 
competition for placement will result in a high degree of seleotion. Only the 
best trained and keenest minds can hope to arrive at the top of the adminis- 
trative ladder. The great bulk of the positions in business will be of the 
clerical type and training of a vocational character for these positions will 
obviously be provided in the secondary schools and those of no higher level 
than the junior college. 

One institution with professional standing and a carefully selected 
student body can furnish the needs of the state for training for positions in 
the higher administrative levels. 

The Coll6giate School of Business 

The objective of the collegiate school of business is to train indivi- 
duals who may be expected ultimately to occupy positions of administrative 
responsibility. These persons will be making decisions affecting the pro- 
duction activities, the marketing of products and services, or the financing 
of enterprise. They are the ones who will be called upon to determine the 



-76- 

policies for the direct utilization of the state's resources. They should be 
the business leaders of twenty years after graduation. Every state needs in- 
dividuals at the head of its business enterprises who are equipped to exercise 
judgment and leadership. The present economic depression gives us a good 
illustration of the need for better trained executives. 

Although the ultimate objective of a collegiate school of business may 
be stated in such ambitious terms, it is nevertheless true that those graduat- 
ing will not be placed immediately in positions of responsibility. Their re- 
sponsibilities in the first positions held will be very slight indeed. A great 
part of the equipment of the business leaders must be obtained from practical 
experience and a period of apprenticeship must follow the college course. This 
is not an attribute solely of business training, however. The law schools do 
not turn out great corporation lawyers or jurists; the medical schools do not 
place renowned surgeons immediately upon graduation; a great teacher is dis- 
covered years after he has received his degree in a college of education. In 
all these fields the institutions are planning their curricula with the idea 
of giving a basic training that will be supplemented by experience. In the 
end it is hoped, however, that the individual will ultimately arrive in a place 
of leadership in his chosen field. The collegiate school of business aims to 
train for the major executive positions in production, marketing, and finance, 
and for certain specialized fields such as accounting, statistics, and economics. 
All those who occupy positions in these several fields are called upon to make 
decisions of major policies. 

A person who is expeoted to exercise discretion with respect to deter- 
mining policies in a highly complex society must be equipped with a broad back- 
ground. He should have an understanding of the evolutionary character of human 
institutions. He should know something of the economic structure of the many 
institutions which play an important part in the business life of the community. 
He should be able to see beyond the immediate, superficial circumstances in 
economics phenomena to the fundamental causes of change. He is not a technician 



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but a fonnulator of broad policies. His training, therefore, should be of a 
broad character. 

Curriculum: The curriculum should provide both professional training 
in business and a broad theoretical background. There are a few institutions 
in America that provide for a professional training in a condensed form after 
all of the background oourses have been completed. This is true of the Grad- 
uate Sohools of Business Administration at Harvard and Stanford. These in- 
stitutions could be far removed from arts colleges if proper library resouroes 
were available. Most institutions, however, are of the four-year type. North 
Carolina is best equipped to offer this type of instruction* In a four-year 
course it is desirable to have the background oourses offered oonourrently 
with the professional. It thus becomes convenient to have the work offered 
on the same campus with a well organised college of liberal arts. A curri- 
culum organized to meet the needs of North Carolina should inolude the follow- 
ing: 

1. Tool Courses} Accounting and statistics are the basic tools of 
quantitative measurement essential to the analysis of business problems. These 
subjects, together with elementary oourses in eoonomios should be available at 
the junior college level. 

2. Social Sciences i Emphasis should be placed upon oourses in history, 
political science, and the other social sciences with a view to providing the 
student with a dear understanding of the relationship of business to the more 
general interests of the community. 

3. Soienoes and Mathematics} Modern business is dependent in a large 
measure upon science. Chemistry and physics form a background for the develop- 
ment of productive processes and techniques. A student in business should be 
equipped with some knowledge of these basio sciences as an aid in understanding 
modern industrial prooesses. Mathematics is essential as an aid in interpret- 
ing the statements of business activities as quantitative measurements are 
becoming more important administrative devices. Provision, therefore, should 



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be mads for a student to obtain some training in the field of mathematics. 

4* Economics j Economics, particularly economic theory, is an essen- 
tial part of the equipment of the trained executive. It is only through a 
thorough knowledge of economic principles that a person is able to interpret 
the forces controlling the fluctuations in business activity. Every student 
in business administration should have a training in economic theory, beyond 
the principles usually presented in a junior-college course. 

5. Professional Courses i A business curriculum should provide oppor- 
tunities for specialization in the several fields afforded in the modern bus- 
iness organization. These special fields include professional accounting, 
marketing and merchandising, banking and finance, statistics, etc. 

6. Elective Cultural Courses: The business student's training is not 
complete unless he has come in contaot with disciplines in entirely different 
fields from those which may contribute direotly in his occupation. Sufficient 
leeway in an organized curriculum should be provided to enable the student to 
elect courses in suoh subjeots as literature, philosophy, and modern languages. 

Laboratory Facilities i In addition to the courses enumerated above 
and the library facilities that a first-class university provides, a school of 
business administration should be so equipped as to afford some laboratory 
experience in the types of business predominant in the state. Business con- 
ditions can rot be duplicated in a controlled laboratory such as the physical 
laboratories in engineering, the olinics in the medical school, or the practice 
courts in law. A student may come in contact with business conditions only by 
direct observation of actual concerns. Provision, therefore, should be made 
for such contacts with the business organizations in North Carolina as will 
provide a proper laboratory training. There are practically no business con- 
cerns in Chapel Hill and not a great variety in Raleigh. Good roads, however, 
make it possible to travel considerable distances to the industrial centers of 
the state. It is possible to secure the type of laboratory training needed 
either by frequent visits to commercial, financial, and industrial institutions, 



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or by the introduction of a modified form of the cooperative plan. If the 
business concerns of the state are interested in contributing to the training 
program of executives, they might aid by entering into a cooperative program 
with the school. 

Several executives of business concerns of North Carolina expressed 
themselves as being very much interested in the development of a business- 
administration educational program. It was evident that they are aware of the 
needs in this field and are ready to contribute their services in developing 
a well organized cooperative program. 

Under this plan students would be given work on a full-time basis for 
varying periods of time during their university course* In this way the stu- 
dent would come in contact with actual business methods before he had oompleted 
his university course. Such a plan is desirable in giving the student some in- 
sight into the methods of business operation. It gives him some familiarity 
with business methods and also opens problems that give more reality to the 
theoretical discussions of the classroom. 

Researoh: The fact that the state is becoming more highly industrial- 
ized makes the responsibilities of the University in the field of research more 
important. The state has supported research programs in agrioulture for many 
years. These have had a profound effeot upon the agricultural interest of the 
state. Not only have more scientific methods of farming been introduced, but 
these researoh projects have also aided in the fields of marketing and financ- 
ing as well. 

As other forms of industry evolve in the economic life of the state, 
research in these fields becomes essential. Researoh in technology will, of 
necessity, be left to the engineering and technical schools. The organization 
of the productive resources of the state in the interests of the community, 
however, is of equal importance. North Carolina is in a strategic position 
for economic leadership in the South. A program of research into the resources 
of the region is a requisite of a planned economic development. Much is being 



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said at present about the possibilities of economio planning as a basis for 
national employment stabilisation. It osn safely be said that little can be 
expected in the way of a plan of economic control along national lines until 
more is known about regional conditions. 

The United States is divided into certain well-defined economio regions, 
each of whioh is more or less subject to conditions within its own area. A 
rational plan of development oalls for oareful analysis of the facts* It is 
inoumbent upon the organised school of business to ascertain the facts and even 
formulate sound policies for development. The state should look to its 
School of Commerce for guidance in this field just as it does to other 
divisions of the University for leadership in publio health programs and a 
development of educational policies. As an illustration of the type of re- 
search that should be expected in a school of business administration, the 

following questions may be asked: 

1. What are the resouroes of the state? 

2. How may these best be utilised in promoting its welfare? 

3. Whioh industries are growing and may be expected to increase in 
importance? 

4. Which are declining and may be expected to be of less importance 
in the future? 

5. What are the competing oonditions in eaoh industry? 

6. What are the factors that cause faotorie6 to migrate into or out of 
a region? 

7. What markets exist both for raw materials and for finished produots 
of the industries in the region? 

8. What constitutes a sound policy of taxation? 

It can readily be seen that answers to these questions are of signi- 
ficance to business interests and civio organisations in direoting the economio 
development of the state. The State of North Carolina has relied to some ex- 
tent in the past upon the University for advice and counsel on some of these 
questions. Special mention might be made of the services of the Department 
in formulating its present tax policies. Individually oertain members of the 



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staff have also contributed to researoh in industry. Professor Murehi son's 
treatise on the textile industry is an illustration of the type of work that 
should be promoted in this field. The point should be emphasized that the 
state should have available a group of research scholars who are equipped to 
examine critically the pressing economic problems of the region. 

Faoulty Leadership: A faculty of a professional school should 
exercise leadership beyond the limits of the classroom. There are many prob- 
lems on which the disinterested opinions of those persons who are scientifi- 
cally trained are invaluable. As problems arise in industry the business men 
of the state should feel that they can rely upon the faoulty of the school 
of business administration for advice and counsel. This does not mean that 
the faculty should ever indulge in propaganda or that they should be 
financially interested in business concerns. Their positions should be 
strictly objective and disinterested. Thus a faoulty is able to exercise 
leadership of prime importance. It may be said that this type of servioe 
has not been rendered to any great extent by collegiate schools of business 
any place in the United States up to the present. This situation is doubt* 
less due to the faot that schools have not yet developed sufficiently to 
warrant the confidence that is necessary in performing suoh service. 

Perhaps the best illustration of what is meant in this connection is 
afforded by the development of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the 
Agricultural Agent. These institutions have been invaluable to agriculture* 
There is no reason why the facilities of the University in other fields involv- 
ing the production, marketing, and financing of its industrial products should 
not be afforded the same type of servioe. 

Relative Advantages of Chapel Hill and Raleigh 

In the preceding pages the position of a collegiate sohool of business 
in the educational system has been considered. This discussion has covered 
the currioulum, the laboratory facilities, services for researoh, and the 



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service of faculty leadership in the community. These factors can be used in 
appraising the institutions that are at present located at Chapel Hill and 
Raleigh. 

There is a Sohool of Commerce at the University at Chapel Hill and a 
School of Science and Business at the College of Agriculture and Engineering 
at Raleigh. An analysis of their published bulletins indicates that they both 
have the same objective. Furthermore, they both offer courses in the same sub- 
jects. There is apparently a complete duplication in these respects. If one 
were to base his judgment entirely on the published statements of the two 
schools, there would be little to choose between themj the consolidation could 
be effected in one location as well as the other. A closer examination of the 
facilities afforded for the type of training and services to the state indicated 
in the preceding pages, however, does reveal some very striking differences. 
These comparisons can be made in accordance with the general statement of aims 
and objectives of a collegiate school of business. 

Curriculum: Taking first then the subject of the curriculum, we nay 
examine the facilities afforded in the two institutions. 

1. Tool Coursest The two institutions are equally well equipped to 
give the necessary instruction in accounting, statistics, and the principles of 
economics that constitute the basic tool courses in commerce. These subjects 
are offered in the first and second years and can be provided in any firet- 
class junior college. 

2. Social Sciencesi The departments affording instruction in history, 
political science, and other social sciences are better equipped at Chapel Hill 
than at Raleigh. Furthermore, in the consolidation of these institutions work 
in these fields will be further concentrated in Chapel Hill. 

3. Sciences and Mathematicsj The two institutions afford essentially 
the same opportunities for instruction in the basic sciences and mathematics. 
From this standpoint there can be little to choose between the two locations. 

4. Economics i Economics forms the essential background of all of the 



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work in business. It would be extremely unfortunate to separate the technical 
courses in business from the general advanced oourses in economics. Further- 
more, it is desirable that members of the staff in economics should be called 
upon to give instruction in some of the more technical subjects. It is, 
therefore, of utmost importance that the School of Commerce should 
be located in the same place as the Department of Economics and that the two 
should be under the same administrative control. 

There are several reasons why the Department of Economics should be re- 
tained at Chapel Hill. Being one of the important fields of social science it 
is necessary to have a well organized department of economics in a liberal arts 
college. The Department of Economics is a service division offering courses 
to students specializing in other fields. These relationships have been de- 
veloped to a high degree at Chapel Hill. Courses in economics are offered to 
those students specializing in law, education, and in the several specialties 
in the Liberal Arts College. It would be impossible to transfer the eoonomios 
work to another location and still maintain the same quality of instruction in 
other divisions of the University. 

The economics department also offers graduate work both to those major- 
ing in this field and as supplementary work to students majoring in other sub- 
jects. As a service department for the Graduate School it would be necessary 
to maintain the department on the same campus with other graduate departments. 
Furthermore, the library facilities in economics have been developed at Chapel 
Hill. Superior work in advanced undergraduate courses and in the Graduate 
School is dependent upon adequate reference materials. It should be assumed, 
therefore, that the economics department should be retained at Chapel Hill as 
a service division to other departments in the Liberal Arts College and to the 
professional schools and to the Graduate School. 

5. Professional Courses t Both institutions are at present offering a 
rather wide variety of technical courses in accounting, marketing, and finance. 
If we were to examine the facilities for this type of instruction separate 



-84- 
from the other parts of the curriculum, the institution could be looated in 
either place. It is desirable, however, as mentioned above, that some of the 
members of the faculty in economics should be called upon to offer courses of 
a technical sort. It is desirable, therefore, to bring the professional courses 
on the same campus as the courses in economios. 

6. Elective Cultural Courses* The College of Liberal Arts at Chapel 
Hill affords the only opportunity for a broad seleotion of cultural courses 
that are desirable in rounding out the commerce student's curriculum. 

In weighing the significance of the various elements in the commerce 
curriculum it can be seen that the facilities at Chapel Hill surpass those at 
Raleigh and, therefore, it is desirable to conoentrate instruction in business 
at Chapel Hill. 

Laboratory Facilities: The laboratory facilities in the two locations 
are essentially the same. It is true that Raleigh is a larger city and it, 
therefore, affords somewhat more in the way of business activity. The distances, 
however, are not very great and the means of transportation are suoh that 
Chapel Hill does not suffer beoause of its size. Furthermore, the oity of 
Durham is near enough to Chapel Hill to afford practically as convenient a 
laboratory as the business institutions of Raleigh are to the oampus in that 
city. In other words, the students can be given essentially the same type of 
laboratory experience in either location. 

Research: Chapel Hill offers greater opportunities for research of the 
type suggested than may be found at Raleigh. The library has accumulated a 
vast amount of material in the field of economics that is invaluable in con- 
ducting research projects. 

Faculty Leadership! It is not the function of this commission to con- 
sider in detail the personal qualifications of the faculties of the institu- 
tions being examined. It can be assumed that if the schools at Raleigh and 
Chapel Hill are consolidated, the promising men on the faculties of both insti- 
tutions would be retained. The members of the teaching staffs can be considered 



-95- 
as mobile factors in the consolidated program. Savings and eoonomies resulting 
from the elimination of duplications can be applied to the development of a 
faculty personnel second to none in the United States. 

This statement should not be taken as a criticism of the existing 
faculties. There are several outstanding men on the staffs of the existing 
schools. Some of these have turned out work that has had a far-reaching in- 
fluence. The faculties of both institutions are made up largely of young men 
who are developing in their respective fields. As the institutions grow older, 
the average age of the members of their teaching and research staffs will tend 
to increase. A constructive policy would provide for retaining those who had 
demonstrated most clearly a capacity to exercise the type of leadership desired 
in order to avoid the consequences that would result from merely allowing an 
aging process to mature the staff. 

There are several members of the present staff who should be retained 
in spite of the competition for their services that will soon be manifest. 
Some of them have published materials in recent years that have added materially 
to their reputations and have attracted the attention of other institutions. 
From the long-time point of view, it will be desirable to piok out a group of 
well-trained and promising members of the present faculty as a nucleus for the 
development of the instructional and research staff of the future. These should 
be expected to formulate the broad polioies and to exercise the influence neces- 
sary to mould the institution. 

Some members of the faculty have had business experience, although the 
majority have not. Some provision should be made whereby members of the staff 
of the School of Commerce could secure direot, first-hand contacts 
with business organizations. This, perhaps, can best be provided by en- 
oouraglng members of the staff to secure employment in business during their 
leaves of absence from the University. 



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Student Body 

If the two schools are to be consolidated and located at Chapel Hill, 
the question would arise as to the effect of such movement upon the enrollment. 
Would the number of students seeking admission to the consolidated school be 
equal to the sura of the enrollments in the two existing schools? One can only 
speculate on the answer to this question. It is quite likely, however, that 
a number of the students now attending the State College in Raleigh would not 
enroll at Chapel Hill. As a matter of fact, it might be desirable to limit the 
number of registrants to the demonstrated need of the state for graduates of 
business administration. 

The standards for admission would in some measure serve as a bar to 
a great influx of students. While it has been impossible to conduct a thorough 
examination of the present student bodies, some data were obtained pertaining 
to the make-up of the enrollments in the two institutions. The statistics 
available show the geographical distribution. In so far as could be seen from 
the registration statistics there is very little difference in the sources of 
the student bodies. Naturally there are more students giving their home address 
as Raleigh at the State College, but as to those who register from outlying 
points, there is rather wide distribution of both the student bodies, at 
Raleigh and at Chapel Hill. 

An attempt was also made to determine the source of students with re- 
spect to their economic backgrounds. There was not enough information avail- 
able to draw any broad generalization. From what data were available, however, 
it appeared that both institutions draw from the same type of home. These 
included among the parents of students, business men, professional men, farmers, 
and laborers. 

Another source of information on this question was supplied from the 
standard deviations on the high school tests of students entering the commerce 
and business administration oourses in the two institutions. These tables are 
given in an appended statement, (Appendix C). It appears from these reports 



-87- 
that the soholastio standing of the students entering the University at Chapel 
Hill is somewhat higher than that of the students entering the State College 
at Raleigh. There is, therefore, some reason for assuming that there has been 
in the past some degree of selectivity in the student bodies. 

Instruction at the Intermediate Level 

There are many young men and women who desire some instruction on the 
collegiate level who are clearly unable to qualify for the higher levels of 
administrative positions. A great many of these individuals are at present 
endeavoring to complete the regular four-year courses in business. This 
situation is evident not only in the institutions of North Carolina, but in 
practically every other four-year school. As was stated earlier in this re- 
port, the cost of carrying these students is a needless v/aste of public funds 
and is detrimental to the best interests of the individuals themselves. 

A possible alternative procedure to that of encouraging these students 
to attempt to complete a regular four-year course, .vould be to organize special 
vocational courses terminating in a much shorter period. These vocational 
courses would lead to specific positions in the business concerns cf the state. 
These would include salesmen, clerks, classified civil service positions at the 
intermediate levels, and some of the bookkeeping and office practice positions. 

This suggestion is made merely as a basis for future consideration. 
This plan should not be introduced until after a thorough-going survey has been 
made of the needs of the state for persons in these intermediate, specialized 
occupations and also of the type of training needed to equip students for such 
positions . 

Training for Commercial Teachers 

The qualifications for commercial teachers are set forth in Educational 
Publication No. 138 of the State Board of Eduoation. The requirements include, 
in addition to the general requirements for the high school certificate, the 



-88- 
oompletion of forty-five semester hours in commerce. These commerce credits 
inolude stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, and office management. Emphasis 
is placed upon the clerical techniques in secondary commercial eduoation at 
present. Undoubtedly commerce oourses in high schools will continue to special- 
ize in such subjects as stenography, typewriting, and bookkeeping. There is 
little else in the business administration field that lends itself to teaching 
at the high-school level. This being the case, it is unlikely that any great 
changes in the curriculum for teacher training will be effeoted in the near 
future. Furthermore, it is likely that most of the commercial teaohing posi- 
tions will continue to be held by women. This is one reason for developing 
the course in commercial education at the Women's College at Greensboro, 

The oourses arranged for commercial teachers are also needed in the 
development of a secretarial scienoe currioulum. This field is also practi- 
cally preempted by women. The secretarial oourses, therefore, could well be 
maintained at Greensboro, In the secretarial oourse it is desirable to in- 
clude several other subjects in the field of economics and business. These 
additional subjects, however, oould be provided either by access to the general 
courses offered at Chapel Hill, (the class oould be transported to Chapel Hill) 
or a professor from Chapel Hill oould be designated to teach one or two days 
a week at Greensboro, Except for this supplementary requirement for the stu- 
dents in secretarial scienoe, practically no additional staff, in addition to 
that in the present economics department, would be needed to develop the work 
in commercial eduoation and secretarial science. 

It would be neoessary, however, to develop further the instruction in 
shorthand and typewriting. This work at present is being given as a side in- 
terest by the college treasurer. A full-time instructor should be obtained to 
develop this work on an adequate basis. 

There is appended to this report a statement of a business program of 
secretarial courses that could be introduced at the Collage for Women which 
would meet the state teaohing requirements in eduoation and also would not 



-89- 
require additions to the staff of the College, (Appendix D)* 

Economics and Business Courses at Raleigh 

The courses in agriculture and in the teohnioal fields at Raleigh would 
still require instruction in economics and business, though the work in 
oammeroe should he moved to Chapel Hill* The needs of students in these 
fields* however* for the courses in economics and business are quite modest 
as compared with the present available offerings* The Department of 
Agricultural Economics offers at present most of the work in general eoonomios 
that would be needed* In addition to the present offerings provision should 
be made for courses in the prinoiples of accounting, oost accounting, and per- 
haps one in production management and one in marketing organisation* The num- 
ber of subjects, therefore, that should be offered is limited* To the extent 
that students require other oourses beyond this rather restricted program, it 
would be possible to require them to attend classes at Chapel Hill, or faoulty 
members from Chapel Hill could give work at Raleigh* 

Coordination of Business Training 

It is recommended that the work in business and economics at Raleigh 
in the future should be organized primarily as service courses* This, of 
course, is exolusive of the work in agricultural eoonomios which should be 
carried on in the future just as it is at present, subject to the recommenda- 
tions made in Chapter II* All of the specialized and professional work in 
commerce and administration will thus be restricted to the School of Commerce 
at Chapel Hill. 

Significance of Physical Separation 

The physical plants at Raleigh and Chapel Hill are approximately thirty 
miles apart. The campus at Greensboro is about fifty miles from Chapel Hill. 
There are excellent roads connecting these oampuses which enable a person to 



-90- 
make the trip in a relatively short time. A consolidated School of Commerce 
at Chapel Hill would not seriously inconvenience students at the other 
institutions who desire to take specialized work in that field. If the demand 
for speoial work is somewhat limited, the students could be transported 
economically to the class. If, on the other hand, a rather large group of 
students demanded a special course, it would be more economical to ask the 
professor in charge to oonduct a section of his class on the other campus. 
The savings effected by -Uie elimination of needless duplication would far out- 
weigh the incidental transportation costs involved in transporting either the 
students or the faculty. 

Possible Savings as a Result of Consolidation 

It would be difficult to estimate the extent of savings that might be 
effected by consolidation. Probably the immediate savings would not be very 
great. The total salary budget for Chapel Hill, as of March 1, 1932, is 
$49,456, while that for Raleigh is $29,034. Obviously it would be impossible 
to save even a major part of the Raleigh budget by consolidation. It would be 
necessary to increase the personnel of the staff at Chapel Hill and at the sane 
time it would be neoessary to retain at Raleigh a few members of the staff in 
order to give the servioe courses that would be required* The money savings, 
therefore, would not be evidenced immediately but would result from a better 
coordination of the work in the future and would become clearly evident as 
expansion were made. 

Some savings would be possible by increasing the olass sizes enabling 
one staff member to give instruction to a larger number of students. There are 
on the combined staffs of tiie two institutions at present twenty-five teaching 
members and three student assistants. A careful study of the course offerings 
and possibilities for increasing class size would determine the number of staff 
members necessary on a consolidated program. It seems reasonable to assume 
that the work could be carried on effectively with a smaller number on the 



-91- 

consolidated staff than are at present employed in the two institutions. 

Summary of Recommendations 

The following are the specific reoommendations contained in this report* 
1* There should be one institution for training in business at the 
higher level* 

2. The standards of the institution should be of the highest rank, 
both in the seleotion of the student body and in the type of faculty 
personnel* 

3. The School of Commerce should be located at Chapel Hill* This 
recommendation is based upon the following considerations t 

a* The facilities for affording a broad curriculum are better 

than at Raleigh, 
b* The research facilities are more adequate. 
c. The service aspeots of the Department of Economics and the 
School of Commerce require a speoific program at Chapel Hill, 
regardless of the location of the School of Commerce. 
4* The oourses in commercial education and secretarial science should 
be located at Greensboro* 

5* The possibility of adopting a plan of business training at the 
intermediate level for -those students who are not adapted to the complete 
four-year program but would be benefited by a shorter intensive training 
course, should be considered. 

6. The continuation of the present arrangement at Chapel Hill by which 
business administration and economics are combined under one head* 



CHAPTER VII 
ADULT EDUCATION 
Certain General Considerations 

The growth of non-campus instruction in North Carolina has been 
greatest during the decade, 1920-30. Variously termed as university or 
college extension, extra-mural work, and adult education, there has arisen a 
recognition of the desirability of state-provided facilities for study by a 
large section of the population which otherwise would have no direct contact 
with the institutions of higher learning within the state. In addition to 
the State University, the College for Women, and the State College, other state 
and private institutions have dipped lightly into the field until at the pres- 
ent time the people of the state are offered a wide variety of subject-matter 
choices, with a corresponding variety in the quality of work offered, a var- 
iance in the rates charged for such service, and with differing policies on 
such questions as college credit for m>rk performed, fees charged, remunera- 
tion to instructor 8, etc. 

While -there has been no central coordinated plan for the state, still 
instances of overlapping and wasteful competition between the three large 
state institution* chiefly under examination here have been rare. This has 
been due to an admirable spirit of cooperation between the three extension 
units, supplemented by frequent conferences on the part of the directing 
heads. It may be said flatly that there is no duplication of effort within 
given geographical areas. The only instances in which classes have been 
offered by one institution in territory primarily served by another, are those 
in which the subject matter requested could not conveniently by supplied by 
the latter institution. North Carolina is to be congratulated upon this divi- 
sion of the loadj direct cooperation in extension instruction has been a 

-98. 



forerunner of the plan for the new University^ 

Unfortunately, similar avoidance of duplication has not always been 
possible so far as the private institutions offering extension work have been 
concerned. There not only have been duplication and competition, but at least 
one college is now offering extension class work on a competitive basis ~ a 
particularly dangerous situation since the work in question, offered for cre- 
dit, has been popularized to such an extent that the quality of instruction 
offered is open to question* 

However, the formation in 1930 of the North Carolina Association of 
College Extension Representatives, with five standard colleges participating 
in addition to the three major state institutions, is a step forward in the 
avoidance of future difficulties. The eight members of this Association have 
adopted the standards governing extension credit courses outlined by the 
National University Extension Association, of whioh the University of North 
Carolina is a member* Avoidance of duplication is one of the avowed purposes 
of this Association. Its hand is further strengthened by its representation 
on the Committee on Extension Work of the North Carolina College Conference* 
This Conference concerns itself with the scholastic standards of extension 
work offered for college credit, including such matters as character end con- 
tent of courses, conditions of admission, examinations, salaries, teaching 
load, certification of teachers, etc. 

In any coordinated plan of extension instruction for the state, it 
will be well to bear in mind the desirability, if not the necessity, of 
having the private colleges affiliating* In this connection, consideration 
should be given to the probability that Duke University eventually will feel 
called to enter this sphere of activity and that its faculty, particularly in 
certain of the professional fields, will provide an admirable additional 
reservoir upon whioh to draw for the instructional needs of the adult popula- 
tion* Again, of the three state teachers colleges two are already offering 
extra-mural work by correspondence and all three should be considered as 



-94- 
potential participants in such a plan. 

Consideration of any coordinated state plan for extension service 
is premised on the assumption that the present trend toward the provision of 
adult education facilities in part will be maintained at state expense. The 
North Carolina practice in this regard, while liberal, is not by any means 
unique, since elaborate services are maintained in many states, notably in 
California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Of the Southern states, North Carolina, 
Virginia, and Texas have the most complete systems; and each, it should be 
stated, has insisted upon relatively high standards. 

Any attempt to forecast the future development of adult education 
within a state must take into account the agencies, local in scope, upon 
which the effort may be expected to rest. A state-wide system of university 
extension is at best a supplementary service. Local initiative and local 
facilities must take the primary responsibility, but the state must look for- 
ward to the expansion and improvement of all state-wide aids which will con- 
tribute to the end of an enlightened populace. It is false economy for a 
state to disregard its duty in this respect. Failure to maintain, improve, 
and expand, through proper financial support, a potent series of agencies 
making for good citizenship results in a lowered quality of that citizenship. 
The consequent loss to the state in constructing and maintaining remedial 
agencies far exceeds the outlay for adult education as a preventive and a 
prophylactic, to say nothing of the increased happiness, prosperity, and use- 
fulness of the recipients of suoh education. To state the case extremely, 
the state must make its choice, in behalf of its populace, between expendi- 
tures for educator b and expenditures for penologists. 

The local agencies which will be most concerned with adult educa- 
tion in the future are three in number: the school, the library, and the 
church. In the northern and middle western portions of the United States, 
the use of the churohes for secular education, under the control of educa- 
tional authority, is increasing, as the churches come to realize the 



-9S~ 

desirability of suoh a program. That this trend will spread to the South seems 
inevitable, although efforts at education in the churches of this part of the 
country have met with difficulties in the form of ecclesiastical censorship 
of the instructional materials offered. Libraries in North Carolina provide 
some local means of assistance to eduoation for adults, although the libraries 
arc too few in number and inadequately equipped as to auditoriums, etc.* for 
any extensive participation. Their future availability, along with the 
churches, as local bases for community efforts should not be overlooked. 

With their steady improvement in plants and equipment, the public 
schools seem to be the most likely and hospitable base for much of the adult 
effort. North Carolina's pride in her school investments should not be 
limited to a visualization of their use for children only. There is no finer 
social center in a community than the smoothly functioning, efficiently ad- 
ministered public sohool. Particularly is this true as consolidation increas- 
ingly results in improved schoolhouse facilities. Auditoriums, recreation 
equipment, gymnasiums, and virtually all the paraphernalia of the modern school 
are usable by the parents and friends of children, as well as by children 
themselves. And in most cases, these plants lie idle during more hours of the 
week than they are in use. Afternoon, evening, and week-end schools for 
adults are more than possibilities — they are strong probabilities- and, in 
fact, they already exist in many communities, notably in California. The in- 
creased expense is slight, and the financial outlay is willingly borne by the 
community as soon as it becomes familiar with the benefits to be enjoyed. The 
school center as a unit for the social expression of a community is an impor- 
tant factor to be reckoned with in North Carolina, The excellent work with 
adults done by Mrs. Elizabeth C. Morriss and her associates in the public 
schools of Buncombe County, North Carolina, is an indication of the extent to 
which suoh programs are acceptable to the public. But there is opportunity 
to extend this idea far beyond the needs of the educationally handicapped, 
for the need is felt all the more keenly by the so-called "educated." 



-96- 

It would be the height of folly to outline a plan for state-wide 
extension service without providing for the fullest and heartiest oooperation 
of the school authorities. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
should be at the heart and center of any suoh development. 

It may be alleged that the consideration, at a time of financial de- 
pression and of enforced 9Conomy, of any such larger program as has here been 
partially outlined is unwise, Our economic history, however, indicates that 
the depression will pass and that, after an uncertain and difficult period, 
progress, particularly in education, will return. It should be the function 
of suoh a report as this to assist in wise planning for the efficient and 
economical use of state and local agencies when normal conditions have re- 
appeared. A properly coordinated state plan, which has not heretofore existed, 
will prevent much duplication of effort and waste of the taxpayers' money in 
the long run. 

The sections which immediately follow deal with the extent and char- 
acter of extension offerings now available in North Carolina, together with a 
brief exposition of the machinery in existence necessary to supply these needs, 
certain comment on the administrative and financial problems inherent in these 
services, and certain suggestions as to their development. An attempt has been 
made to avoid unnecessary detail, and little effort has been made to enlarge 
upon the high importance to the people of the state of all parts of the program 
now in operation. 

University of North Carolina 

The extension offerings of the University of North Carolina may be 
classified roughly under three headings; extension classes, correspondence 
work, and special activities. The latter include the widely used Extension 
Library service and the considerable group of services to schools. Sinoe its 
establishment in 1912 (and subsequent reorganization in 1921) the University 
has appropriated for its extension activities annual sums varying from $600 
(in 1912-13) to $66,111 (in 1928-29). The following table indicates the 



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amounts received from appropriations and from fees, with the percentage of 
self-support, since the reorganization of the Extension Bureau into an Ex- 
tension Division in 1921. 

Table III 
Expenditures for Extension by the University 





Year 


Extension 


Extension 


Percentage 




Appropriation 


Income 


Self-supporting* 


1920-21 


$20,164.72 


$ 4,538.14 


21.55? 


1921-22 


28,250.00 


6,086.48 


17.2?? 


1922-23 


31,715.89 


16,728.74 


33.85? 


1923-24 


53,225.00 


30,118.14 


37. 8$ 


1924-25 


57,225.00 


49,710.78 


46.85? 


1925-26 


53,646.00 


60,341.50 


51.95? 


1926-27 


63,975.00 


63,489.04 


49.2?? 


1927-28 


64,477.00 


67,178.52 


51.05? 


1928-29 


66,111.00 


62,926.00 


49.75? 


1929-30 


60,028.00 


65,541.76 


57.45? 


1930-31 


52,000.00f 


65,827.75 


56.65? 


1931-32 


41, 000. 00f 













* Based on actual expenditures. 

t Amount appropriated; amount used, $50,353.10. 

f Appropriation reduced to $28,000.00* 

Table in clearly indicates that individual citizens have been able 
and willing to expend dollar for dollar with the state in the furtherance of 
their own education. Increased University appropriations have in every case 
brought about corresponding Increases in income from student fees, and the 
University has thus been able to conduct for the direct benefit of North 
Carolina citizens a $126,000 a year enterprise for an annual expenditure 
of about half that amount from state funds. Thus each state dollar invested 
has been worth two dollars when applied to the productive (eduoational) end 
of the business. 

The expenditure of the annual gross sum available has been approxi- 
mately as follows: for class instruction, 32 per cent; for correspondence 
instruction, 30 per cent; for the extension library, 10 per cent; for high 
school activities, 5 per cent; for lectures and short courses, 3 per cent; 



-98- 
for the Bureau of Municipal Government, 2 per cent; for organization and 
administration, 18 per cent. 

In the field of class instruction, the three chief items of expen- 
diture are for salaries and fees to instructors, 21 per oent; for travel and 
subsistence of instructors and organizers, 7 per oentj and for books, 2 per 
cent. The percentage given in each case is of the total amount expended for 
extension instruction rather than of the amount expended for class instruction 
alone. 

Percentages similarly arrived at for correspondence instruction give 
20 per oent for salaries and fees to instructors, 4.5 per cent for books, and 
2.5 per oent for postage. 

In the extension library, the chief item percentages of the total 
amount for extension are 6.5 per oent for administrative salaries and wages, 
and 1.5 per cent each for books and for postage. Of the total, 4 per oent 
are spent for salaries and direction in the work in high school debating and 
athletics, 3 per oent of the total for salaries in the Bureau of Lectures 
and Short Courses, and 2 per oent for salaries in the Bureau of Municipal 
Government. The work in Visual Instruction is carried on with a budget of 
$55 — less than l/20 of 1 per cent of the total expended for extension 
at the University. 

The general administrative allocation of 18 per cent is divided into 
11 per cent for salaries, fees, and wages? 4.5 per cent for publications; with 
the remaining 2.5 per cent distributed among supplies, equipment, postage, 
motor vehicle upkeep, repairs, and the like. 

To generalize from these figures: about 60 per cent of the total are 
expended upon class and correspondence instruction, whioh are the chief 
revenue producing activities. The special activities take an additional 20 
to 25 per cent, chief among them being the highly important Extension Library 
Service* The figure of 18 per oent for administrative overhead i3 misleading* 
in that 4.5 per cent should be deduoted for the publications program of the 



-99- 
Division. The resultant 13.5 per oent for administration is modest, par- 
ticularly when it is borne in mind that the central administrative staff is 
oalled upon not only to maintain its own business office and supervisory 
service but to render various general university services, including the edi- 
torial supervision that ordinarily would be made chargeable to a university 
press. 

Measuring the expenditures against the income derived from activities, 
bureau by bureau, it is found that class instruction pays 72 per cent of its 
own way; correspondence instruction, 84 per cent; the extension library, 54 
per oent; lectures, 4 per cent; high school debating, 13 per cent; and com- 
munity drama, 51 per cent. These percentages are not weighted for administra- 
tive overhead. Reference will be made to these percentages under the discus- 
sion pertaining to each activity. 

Class Instruction: During the year 1930-31, when it may be con- 
sidered that the Extension Division was carrying a normal load, the University 
of North Carolina conducted extension classes in 39 communities, the total 
number of classes organized being 137. In these classes 1,183 individuals 
participated, completing a total of 3,203 course registrations. The corres- 
ponding figures for 1931-32 (estimated) are 21 centers, 88 classes, 900 in- 
dividuals, and 1,510 registrations. The indicated drop of 50 per cent is 
attributable to the curtailment in the University appropriation for this pur- 
pose and the corresponding ourtailment in fees received, to the suspension of 
the rule requiring renewal of teachers' certificates by the State Board of 
Education, and to the general effeot of the economic depression upon indivi- 
dual incomes. The question of teacher certification is particularly pertinent, 
sinoe from 85 per cent to 90 per cent of those enrolling in these classes from 
year to year are teachers, who utilize the University Extension Division to 
meet the state's requirements for continued study. 

Geographically, the spread of this work is from liadison and Haywood 
Counties in the west to Pasquotank and Beaufort Counties in the east, from 



-100- 

Caswell and Person Counties in tiie north to Columbus and New Hanover Counties 
in the extreme south. The University has evidently felt the obligation to 
meet demands in outlying centers, quite aside from the question either of fee 
income or of travel economy* The average distance of an extension class from 
Chapel Hill is 141 miles, though actually this figure has been materially re- 
duced through the employment of full-time extension instructors -who reside in 
those territories which they particularly serve. 

It should be stated that none of these classes is geographically 
situated within an area which either of the other state institutions is pre- 
pared to serve. Roughly, ihe College for Women serves northwestern North 
Carolina} the State College operates in the southeastern portion of the state. 
It has been the duty of the University to serve all other areas in which a 
demand might be expressed. 

The fee charged by the University for the usual two-unit course is 
$10. The average enrollment is from twelve to fifteen individuals to a class, 
a decrease from the standard of two years ago when from twenty to twenty-five 
constituted the average registration. 

The subjeots offered in the last two years, arranged according to 
number of registrations, are: eduoation (by far the heaviest enrollment); 
sociology, social science, and rural social economics (less than half the en- 
rollment in education)} natural science, including geology (slightly less 
than in the social subjeots)} music and the fine artsj physical eduoation} 
library science; psychology} history} accounting} life insurance; economics} 
and botany. Mention should also be made of the postgraduate medioal courses 
offered through the Extension Division during the eight years ending in 1928, 

in which a total of 905 dootors were enrolled in classes held in forty-four 
centers. 

The instructional load in extension classes is now being carried by 
eight full-time extension instructors, six of whom are members of the faculty 
of the School of Education but without oampus teaching duties. These instruc- 
tors are teaching all tiie extension classes offered with the exception of one 



-HKU 

course. In normal years, it has been the practice to utilize, in addition, 
eight to ten instructors from the regular faculty in Chapel Hill, who conduct 
their extension work as a marginal activity. 

All, or nearly all, of those taking extension class work are enrolled 
for college credit. The University at present is conducting only one non- 
credit course, in this case for a group of clubwomen^ The administrative 
costs, therefore, of handling this group are relatively high, since record- 
handling, certification, etc., assume importance. 

Full-time instructors are remunerated on a salary basis commensurate 
with their rank in the faculty of the School of Education. The range is from 
$1,800.00 to #4,000.00 — evidence of the University's intention to maintain 
high instructional quality off the campus as well as on. Regular members of 
the campus faculty are recompensed for extension work on a graduated scale, 
applied according to rank and modified according to the amount of travel 
involved. The average remuneration works out at about $9.00 for each class 
meeting of one hour and forty-five minutes, travel and subsistence being fur- 
nished by the Extension Division. The former allowance for travel was six 
cents a mile, recently cut to five. 

The bureau of class instruction is well organized and efficiently 
operated. Relations with the faculty of the School of Education are excellent. 
The standards of work are high, examinations are carefully conducted, and 
course contents are constantly checked. Since those enrolling have a definite 
vocational objective, usually directly oonneoted with certification and salary 
increases, it would seem that the University is justified in its practice of 
relying upon student fees to pay 72 per oent of the cost of this operation. 
It would be a doubtful policy if, as an emergency measure of economy, the 
Extension Division's freedom to respond to demands for class service were to 
be limited further. The effect would soon be felt in the teaching staffs of 
the public schools, particularly in the outlying districts where teacher- 
instruction is most needed* 



-102- 

It is unfortunate that the University is not now reaching through its 
classes a larger portion of the non-teacher element in the state. Attempts to 
organize non-credit classes have not been successful in the last few years. 
It is to be suspected that the offerings made have too closely paralleled cam- 
pus course offerings. If classes dealing with contemporary subjects — such, 
for instance, as the current economic depression, international relations, 
disarmament, etc., — were offered and backed by skillful publicity and ener- 
getic organizational attaok, a new clientele could be built up. Classes for 
teachers are important, but they merely scratch the surface of the adult 
field to be cultivated. There would seem to be much room in North Carolina 
for the development of informal, non-oredit, supervised discussion classes. 
The advantages of bringing members of the faculty in contact with the people 
in the consideration of present-day problems are obvious. 

The employment of full-time extension instructors to meet the ex- 
pressed needs of the school teachers may perhaps be justified, but it has 
grave disadvantages. While it may be argued that such instructors develop a 
technique for teaching adults and while it may be convenient and economical to 
locate them in remote portions of the state, still the fact remains that funds 
will not permit (even if it were advisable) the creation of a complete faoulty 
of extension adequate to meet the needs of a growing state. A small staff of 
full-time instructors will consist necessarily of specialists, who will either 
not undertake to teach the variety of courses demanded or who will attempt to 
do so and spread themselves thin in the process. The University might well 
consider the retention of two, or possible three, of such extension instruc- 
tor ships for the economical service of outlying districts; but it would be well 
frequently to locate these individuals at Chapel Hill for a period of campus 
teaching. University extension should be a veritable effort to bring the 
University to the people. A small specialized staff will not accomplish this 
purpose. A careful study of the financial advantages of the full-time and of 
the part-time instructional staffs should be made. It is probable that a 



-103- 
part-time arrangement, modified as suggested above, will be found advantageous. 

Efforts should be made, in any coordinated state extension plan, to 
out down the travel involved in extension classes. Enlargement of the "spheres 
of influence" of the College for Women and of State College, when those 
institutions are conducting extension work as a part of the University program, 
will be desirable* Again, -through affiliation agreements, members of the 
faculties of the fifteen private institutions should be enlisted for the ex- 
tension program, with consequent reduction of the mileage problem. 

The fee charged by the University — $10.00 for a "half-oourse" — is 
not exorbitant. The fee charged by the College for Women is fixed at the same 
amount, but that of State College is appreciably lower, $7.50. It goes with- 
out saying that the fee should be uniform. Consideration should be given to 
the desirability, in a time of money scarcity, of fixing the fee at the rate 
that will bring the greatest enrollment. The figure of $7.50 is probably too 
low? that of $10.00 is probably too high. Study and experimentation by the 
Director of Extension and the Assooiate Directors should answer the question. 

The University extension enrollments by classes are far too small. 
It is uneconomical and wrong -that a University instructor should travel many 
miles to meet a class of twelve or -thirteen persons. The theoretical minimum 
of fifteen should be raised at least to twenty, and possibly to twenty-five or 
thirty. If -the larger number is not forthcoming, the class should not be 
attempted. The abandonment of the plan of full-time instructors will 
strengthen the Division's resistance against classes of insufficient size. 
There is constant temptation to keep full-time instructors busy with classes 
whose enrollment does not justify the effort involved. There is ample proof 
at hand, in recent studies of college teaching at the University of 
Minnesota, that student success is as great in large classes as in small. 
The aim of the extension organizer should be a group of fifty or sixty rather 
than one of twenty. With an abundance of good roads in North Carolina, 
enrollments should not be allowed to limit themselves to the city or town 
selected as the location for the class. The lower fee suggested above becomes 



-104- 
a definite possibility when much larger groups axe visualized. 

Correspondence Instruction: The Extension Division operates a Bureau 
of Correspondence Instruction, in which 1,400 individuals (a decrease of about 
240 from the enrollment of -the preceding year) are registered in about 150 
courses. The total number of course registrations is 1,9S3 (a decrease of 
about 400 as compared with the preceding year). Of these students, 80 per 
C6nt are residents of the state, and approximately 60 per cent are teachers. 
Most of the remaining 40 per cent are working for credit toward a degree, and 
in the main consist of former college students who for a variety of reasons 
have had to suspend their regular courses. Only 3 per oent of the present 
registrants are not enrolled for credit. All the courses offered carry credit 
with ihe exoeption of accounting and investments and certain normal sohool 
courses which are gradually being discontinued. The largest registrations are 
in education, 582} sociology, 277; English, 265; history, 224; and economics, 
102. Other offerings include, in order of registration totals, normal sohool 
courses; rural economics ; government; mathematics; French; Spanish; social 
science; music; geology; chemistry; German; natural soienoe; and psychology. 

The Bureau shows 74 per cent of course completions, a very high re- 
cord in a field •stfiere Mortality" after a few assignments is expected. 

Residents of North Carolina pay §13.50 for a full (double) course of 
from twenty- five to twenty-seven assignments. Such a course carries three and 
one- third units of credit. Non-residents pay $17,00 for the same courses. 
Single (half) courses of fifteen or sixteen assignments are charged for at the 
rate of &8.00 far residents and $10.00 for non-residents. The rate schedule 
will be seen to bo about 20 per cent less than that in effect for extension 
class work. This relationship between charges for the two types of work is 
reasonable and fair. Correspondence registrants reside in every county of 
North Carolina, in twenty-five states, and one territory. Non-residents of 
the state should be required to pay the full cost of their instruction by 
correspondence, plus overhead charges. An increase of the present fee of 
$10.00 to $12.00 per course, or 20 per cent, would seem to be justified. 



-105- 

Correspondenoe instruction normally pays 84 per cant of 
its cost of maintenance. Instructors, 1*10 are members of the resident faculty, 
most of them are of professorial grade, receive in normal years a fee of $40 
for writing a full course and $25 for a half course,, They receive thirty cents 
for each paper corrected. All these amounts have been cut 10 per cent in the 
present year and are subject to further reductions. 

The quality of the wo^k performed is high. Much care is taken by 
the instructors to make their marginal and other comments explicit and helpful. 
It is not uncommon for an instructor to spend as much as an hour in the correc- 
tion of a single paper. Comprehensive examinations are conducted, and the 
marking is rigid. There is no evidence whatsoever of a lowering of University 
standards in this work. Correspondence courses as conducted by the University 
of North Carolina are difficult, and the student performs more work than in 
parallel courses in classes either on or off the campus. 

The fees charged are reasonable and in consonance with the best prac- 
tice in other state university home study departments. The element of voca- 
tional advancement en the part of the individual enters here, as in class work, 
and would seem to justify the University in contributing only 16 per cent of 
the cost. 

The University might well try the experiment, particularly in oertain 
of its outlying districts where class work is unduly expensive, of conducting 
combination correspondence and class courses. Groups of correspondence stu- 
dents elsewhere have been assembled in conference with an instructor at stated 
intervals with good results. 

Extension Library Service: Perhaps the most interesting and certainly 
the most extensive of the special activities operated by the University Exten- 
sion Division is the Extension Library Service. This service emanates from 
the University library building in Chapel Hill, although it is one of the com- 
ponent parts of the Extension Division. It originated as a Bureau of Public 
Discussion. The servioe is primarily that of book-lending by mail, although 



-106- 

it also involves a bulletin publication enterprise of some magnitude, and a 
distribution service of pamphlet and other educational materials. 

Teachers, students, and general readers to the number of 6,398 last 
year received materials from a collection of more than 1,000 books on educa- 
tional subjects. All but 226 of these individuals resided within the state* 
Many of the user3 of the service were class or correspondence extension stu- 
dents, supplementing their course work. Pupils in secondary and elementary 
sohools included in the above total received debate materials, essays, decla- 
mations, plays, pamphlets, and magazine articles. During the present year a 
charge of ten cents has been made for each package, in addition to postage 
and packing charges j formerly the service was free. The borrower pays the 
transportation charges. Last year's volume was 26,304 pieces of mail matter, 
exclusive of letters. 

A special service is offered to women's clubs, which pay a fee of 
$7.00 a year ($10.00 if outside the state), for which they receive ten oopies 
of an outline of study (published as an extension bulletin), chosen by them 
from a list of forty-five suoh outlines available. The list includes art and 
music; biography and travels civic and social problems? the dramaj good books; 
history; interior decoration; and literature — American and foreign, general 
and southern. In most cases, these programs are written by members of the 
University faculty; they are admirably compiled and presented by experts in 
the fields covered. The service includes lists of references necessary in 
preparing papers and the privilege of borrowing the needed books and materials. 
During ttie last year 805 clubs were served, 211 being registered for the full 
service and 594 for occasional service. The latter groups pay individual fees 
in varying small amounts for "ttie services rendered. To these clubs were sent 
last year 6,630 packages, containing 20,334 books and pamphlets, 10,723 
bulletins, and 52 phonograph records. 

In addition, the service maintains an Alumni Book Club, in which 
alumni, their families, and friends, may borrow, at a fee of thirty-five cents 



-107- 

a volume, from a special collection selected by members of the facultv. A 
similar special servioe is available to members of parent-teacher associations 
upon payment of the usual small fee. General readers may in addition borrow 
as many as three books from a special collection of biography, verse, fiction, 
and non-fiction upon payment of a twsn%--five cent fee. 

For all these services there was expended last year a gross of 
$11,344.48, of which #5,572.89 was from fees and the balance from state funds. 
The dollar-for-dollar principle has obtained, the proportion of self-sup- 
port being just short of 50 per cent. Salaries and wages account for almost 
60 per oent of the gross; the chief items in the remainder are for postage, 
purchase of books, and the printing of bulletins. 

The general excellence of this work, the high quality of the course 
outlines published, and the need for guidance of the important and influen- 
tial section of the state's population using this service make a strong case 
indeed for the continuance of the service to clubs. The service to the 
schools ~ teachers, pupils, and parents — should be subsidized out of the 
state's budget for the public schools, though it is doubtful whether the pub- 
lic school system will be equipped to perform the service for parents and 
teachers as well as the University performs it. There is every reason, how- 
ever, to urge that the service for school pupils be assumed by the State 
Board of Education and that funds be allocated by the Board to the University 
for this specialized work with teachers and parents. 

What seemingly is an opportunity for the organization of non-credit 
courses among clubwomen, parent groups, etc., should be followed up. So far 
no such courses have eventuated as a result of Library Extension, but there 
is clearly indicated here a field for the discussion group organized by the 
Extension Division under competent faculty leadership. 

High-School Relations: As one of its extension activities, the 
University has taken leadership in high-school debating since 1913. In that 
year a High-School Debating Union was organized as the result of undergraduate 



-108- 

interest in the subject at the University, expressed through two literary 
societies. The present participation in this activity totals 218 schools; 
all of which took part last year in a series of triangular debates, the 52 
winners sending their teams numbering 208 speakers to the University for the 
finals. The Extension Division has organized a Bureau of High-School Debating 
and Athleticsi with a full-time seoretary in charge. In addition to debating, 
contests have been organized in the high schools in Latin, French, Spanish, 
and mathematics. Contests are also held in the field of athletics. The con- 
test program reaches about 10,000 high-school students a year. Last year the 
high-school enrollments totaled 669, divided as follows; debating, 218; 
athletics, 182; academic, 269. The Bureau also serves in a secretarial 
capacity to the High School Athletic Association of North Carolina, and or- 
ganizes the coaching school held in the summer for high-sohool athletic direc- 
tors. The last attendance at this school was 78, a total of 552 since the 
school was formed in 1922. 

In the debating field, the Bureau publishes a well-edited and com- 
plete Debate Handbook on the subject under discussion for the year. The 
last two dealt with "Compulsory Unemployment Insurance" and "Independence for 
che Philippines." These bulletins, accompanied by other material in mimeo- 
graphed form, are sent free to participating high schools. The Bureau also 
publishes numerous circulars which are sent to the schools. 

The gross cost of this service last year was $5,650.27. Income from 
sales of publications, etc., yielded $750.00, the net outlay in state funds 
being $4,900.27. The chief item of expense lies in the salary of the seoretary 
and his clerical assistant. 

Excellent as this service is, it is almost impossible to defend the 
expenditure of the money needed for its maintenance from University funds. 
The state's services to high schools and high-school students should be car- 
ried on the state's books as school allocations and not as expenditures for 
higher education. It may well be advantageous to continue to conduct these 



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contests tinder University leadership and oontrol. If so, a special subsidy 
for the work should be made to the University from state school funds. 

Lectures, Short Courses, and Radio: For the last two years the 
praotioe has been followed of referring requests for leotures direot to the 
faculty members conoerned, the Extension Division taking no direot respon- 
sibility, finanoial or otherwise. The number of requests for leotures has 
dwindled and there seems to be no dear polioy on the part of the University 
in this matter. Ten years and more ago faculty members were called upon to 
perform a considerable amount of outside lecturing without fee. At the pre- 
sent time, a certain few are in demand and receive honoraria for their services. 

There is need for clarification in this matter. The Extension Divi- 
sion might well set up a lecture booking bureau for the new University to 
which all requests for individual lecturers should be referred, TShile the 
University should not cut itself off from furnishing lecturers free in cer- 
tain cases provided faculty volunteers can be found, still the tendency always 
should be to insist upon the payment of a fee, adequate to meet booking expense, 
travel expense, and a fair remuneration to the lecturer. This servioe should 
not be subsidized by state funds; it should be made to earn its way. An in- 
vestment in dignified publicity of the pamphlet variety, furnished to organi- 
zations throughout the state, might yield a return and establish the servioe 
in the public mind. Private booking agencies seemingly are flourishing de- 
spite the depression. 

Short courses, institutes, conferences, and conventions have tra- 
ditionally been arranged by the Extension Division in cooperation with depart- 
ments and schools concerned. This is a necessary and legitimate activity of 
the University and should be encouraged. It can not be expected to yield in- 
come. Last year a State Press Conference, a Dramatic Festival, a Parent- 
Teacher Institute, a Boy Soout Seminar, a Real Estate Institute, a Life In- 
surance School, and a State Bar Convention were held. 

Radio programs have been conducted for four years, last year the 



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broadcast being limited to lessons in French and Spanish* It would not seem 
that full advantage had been taken of the possibilities of radio instruction, 
particularly on the basis of organized discussion groups and other gatherings 
of listening learners. In this connection, many groups are now being formed 
in various parts of the country for discussion of educational materials broadf 
cast nationally on the chain systems under the sponsorship of the National 
Advisory Council on Radio in Education* The services of a trained University 
leader for these groups would be advantageous and could be furnished on a fee 
basis that would offset most of the C03t» The new University of North Carolina 
should consider plans to offer at least once a week a combined radio hour 
whioh might be expected to result in group activity* 

Community Dramas North Carolina ha3 long lead the nation in the 
field of Community Drama* The demands upon the University for' leadership 
have increased, but curtailment in funds has made -tiie work suffer* In plaoe 
of the usual full-time representative, only part-time service is now available. 
The Bureau of Community Drama has worked through the Carolina Dramatic Asso- 
ciation, which includes fifty-four organized groups in city and oounty high 
schools, oolleges, and community little theaters. Attention is given to play 
production, pageants, and festivals* The writing and production of native drama 
have been stimulated* The Bureau maintains a loan collection of plays and re- 
lated materials. An annual tournament and festival is held at the University, 
preceded by preliminary rounds in which thirty-eight groups participated last 
year* The attendance at the Annual Festival was 2,000, including 260 direotors 
and other members of the State Dramatic Association* It would be advisable to 
restore this Bureau to full efficiency at the earliest date practicable. The 
work can not be expected to earn any considerable part of its way and the 
University should frankly face the neoessity of expending from $2,000.00 to 
$2,500.00 a year for this work instead of the $372.88 (approximately one-half 
the gross expenditure) now contemplated. North Carolina's enviable position 
in this field should not be weakened. 



-Ill- 
Other Services: The Extension Division conducts a number of 
activities of general service to the state, few of which yield any consider- 
able income* but all of which are of importance in the leadership that they 
give to various important groups . Too much can not be said in support of this 
type of activity. It is a field in which the legitimate expenditure of state 
funds should be increased rather than decreased. The records show that in the 
last few years lack of funds has brought about a marked recession in this type 
of endeavor on the part of the University, 

These services include the Bureau of Recreation, concerned chiefly 
with teachers of physical education and leaders in various organizational 
efforts involving this fields, Bulletins have been published and other leader- 
ship given with the cooperation of the School of Public Welfare. 

The Bureau of Economic and Social Surveys , a cooperative arrangement 
with the Department of Rural Social Economics , publishes in normal times 
numerous bulletins and surveys arising out of the work of the Department, 
which are sold and distributed by the Extension Division^ whose budget is 
called upon to defray the cost of printing and issuance. The publications 
item of the administrative budget — at present $4,435 — covers this "type 
of expenditure, but since many of the bulletins are distributed free in North 
Carolina, the income is only about 25 per cent of the expenditure for this 
purpose* Included in this category is the News Letter originating in the 
Department of Rural Social Economics and sent widely to newspaper editors for 
their editorial use. The cost of the News Letter — $2,800 annually when 
issued as at present on a fortnightly basis (normally it is a weekly) — is 
charged against Extension publication funds* This Bureau, because of lack of 
funds, has practically ceased the issuance of occasional bulletins. 

The Bureau of Municipal and County Government is similarly organized, 
end functions in a like manner in its field Its activities have been 
seriously curtailed in the last twc years.. The Extension Division is charged 
with a $2,400 salary for this Bureau, the recipient at present devoting his 



-112- 

entire time to research and campus teaching. This sum should either be de- 
voted to the actual work of the Bureau or the charge transferred to the 
Department of History. The desirability of developing the work of this 
Bureau in the field of citizenship is obvious. 

The Bureau of Educational Information is conducted without expense 
to the Division through the cooperation of the School of Education. It should 
be continued. 

Some work in visual education is performed, though deoreasingly in 
late years. The development of reasonably-priced motion picture projectors 
with sound, a most recent accomplishment, may be expected to bring about in- 
creased future usefulness of this medium. Motion picture film and stere- 
optican slide rentals should be placed sufficiently high to cover the cost of 
operation of a Bureau of Visual Education, when the need for such a bureau 
has been demonstrated. 

A State Poster Contest has been held for school children ~ another 
activity which should be charged against state school funds. 

These general services, the importance of which has already been em- 
phasized, nearly all find their natural outlet in publications ~ bulletins, 
circulars, pamphlets, and the like. Fields of commerce and industry, publio 
health, penology, community music, etc., formerly touched by publications and 
conferences, are not now reached. The continuance of this publications pro- 
gram is vital to the progress of the state; it should be increased in size as 
funds permit. Part of the general administrative expense of the Extension 
Division lies in the editorial supervision of these publications, for which 
no charge has been made. The general University administration and the de- 
partments in which bulletins originate have profited by this arrangement,, The 
work naturally should be performed within a university press, which under 
ideal conditions would assume financial responsibility also. If no such 
arrangement is possible, a recasting of the publications budget of the 
University should be made so as either to relieve the Extension Division of a 



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part of this financial burden or to throw upon it the entire responsibility 
for the University publications program, with suitable financial support 
therefor. 

North Carolina College for Women 

Extension work at the North Carolina College for Women was first 
organized in 1924. As a campus institution the college was established to 
meet the educational needs of women, and in oonformity with this purpose the 
extension program meets the off -campus needs of the feminine population of 
the state. The work falls under two classifications: formal, consisting of 
extension classes maintained principally for teachers; and informal, consist- 
ing of a publications program, high-school service, and a conference and 
advisory service to parent-teacher organizations and their memberships. No 
correspondence work is offered. 

Extension Classes: The number of enrollments in extension classes 
this year is 431, a decrease of from 12 per cent to 15 per cent attributed to 
the depression. The number of individuals enrolled is 307. Twenty-seven 
courses are given in 14 centers, all located in territories not touched either 
by the University or by State College. This is a smaller number of centers 
than is usually served, and a correspondingly smaller number of classes. The 
diminution of 12 per cent to 15 per cent seems to hold through all phases of 
the registration. The average number registered in a class is 16, although 
classes of 10 and 12 are not exceptional. The largest class has a registra- 
tion of 36. 

The classes are in the following subjeots, arranged in order of total 
registration: English, 184; history, 56; education, 35; art, 33; sociology, 
30; economics, 19; supervision, 19; government, 17; health, 12; science, 11. 
It is worth noting that, unlike the University, where the class emphasis lies 
on courses in education, the College for Women concentrates chiefly on 
subject-matter courses, with English and history leading. These, as well as 



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courses in methods, are acceptable for teacher certification* 

Fees paid by students for class work are mainly uniform with class 
fees exacted by the University of North Carolina. The usual payment for a 
single course is $10. Ninety-five per oent or more of the enrollment is made 
up of teachers, all of whom are taking the work for oollege credit or 
cer ti fi cation. 

Instructors, all of whom are full-time members of the College campus 
faculty, and usually of professorial rank, are paid a flat fee of $9*00 per 
lecture, with the addition of a travel allowance of six cents a mile, or bus 
fare. Instructors are permitted by the College to teach only two extension 
courses a year. The increment to faculty incomes is less than $300.00 a year. 
A similar increment is possible through six weeks of summer session teaching; 
twelve weeks of suoh teaching is not allowed. 

Classes meet for sixteen weeks, although certain courses are offered 
over a period of twenty-four weeks, for which additional credit is given. 

The College for Women, like the University and the State College, 
has catered chiefly to teaohers in its organization of extension classes. 
The possibility of developing classes and discussion groups, in cooperation 
with clubs, parent- teacher organizations, and churches, should be explored. 

Classes are muoh too smallj they should not be undertaken unless 
minimum requirements of twenty to twenty-five enrollments are enforced. The 
theoretical minimum of fifteen registrations is not enforoed and there are at 
present fifteen (out of the total of twenty-seven) olasses consisting of fifteen 
or fewer individuals. This is a waste of instructors' time that could be 
avoided by renewed attacks upon the organizational problem. The work given 
is of a high standard, and the College has sternly resisted all attempts to 
cheapen its courses. 

Publications: The Extension Division of the College for Women is 
active in the dissemination of published material. The Bulletin of the North 
Carolina Council of Women in Education , the Bulletin of the North Carolina 
Federation of Women's Clubs, the North Carolina Parent-Teacher Bulletin, the 



-115- 

Clip- Sheet and News-Letter of the Institute of Women's Professional Relations, 
and the Library Motes bulletin of the College library all are distributed 
through the extension machinery* and the various private organizations of 
women in the state, with which the Extension Division is in contact* None 
of these bulletins, or any part tiiereof, is an actual charge against the 
Extension budget. The College maintains a separate publications fund, whioh, 
together with fees and subscriptions furnished by the outside organizations, 
covers the cost of publication. 

Special Activities s The College maintains close relations through 
its Extension agenoy with the parent-teacher movement in the state. The 
Extension field worker of the Worth Carolina Congress of Mothers and Parent- 
Teacher Associations is a part-time member of the extension staff. Her duties 
are in connection with the bulletin and the holding of conferences, district 
and state. The small subsidy given to iiiis work — about $2,000 — from state 
funds would seem to be eminently justified by the results obtained. 

Through cooperation with the Department of Music, the Extension 
Division for thirteen years has conducted a music contest in the high schools 
of the state. Preliminary contests by districts culminate in a final contest 
at the College in April. Last year 2,397 students from 80 high schools 
participated in the district elimination and state contest. The total number 
of schools participating was 120. This work, like the contests sponsored by 
the University, is of excellent oalibre and much needed in the schools. It 
should be subsidized, however, from public school funds if the school organi- 
zation is not equipped to take it over. There are many advantages in retaining 
the sponsorship in the College, but such retention should not be at the 
financial expense of the Extension Division nor a drain upon the faculty of 
the department concerned. 

Other special activities include conferences and services to deans of 
girls in the public schools, business and professional women, etc. These are 
all activities well worthy of state support. The inoome from them will always 



-116- 
be negligible. The Extension Division also conducts a five-day coaching 
sohool for girls* basketball coaches. It is self-supporting. 

Finanoial Considerations! It is difficult to determine the exaot 
financial status of extension at the College for Women, The Director, -who is 
the field organizer, is also business manager of the College. He devotes 
approximately one-fourth of his time to extension. A $2,000 salary charge is 
made against Extension for this direction. In addition, part-time salaries of 
a secretary and parent- teaoher field worker are included. However, none of 
the publications distributed by the Extension Division is charged against 
its budget. Last year $7,410 was expended in aotual fee3 for teaching and 
approximately #3,500 for travel expense. The income from fees was approxi- 
mately $7,000. The probable total for overhead, including three part-time 
salaries, administrative travel, and office supplies, is $6,500. It is to 
be noted that ttiis sum does not include either publications expense or postage. 
To this $6,500 should be added $3,500 for instructors' travel and $7,500 
for instructors* remuneration, whioh would give a grand total of $17,500. 
Receipts from students' fees will normally run from $7,000 to $7,500 — thuB 
leaving the net cost to the state about $10,000 a year. The work is, 
therefore, about 40 per oent self-supporting. 

As the volume of the class work grows, it may be expected that this 
figure will rise to 50 per oent or better. The dollar-for-dollar principle 
is seemingly easy of accomplishment at this institution. Insistence upon 
larger classes and the possible lowering of the fee charged, when a uniform 
sohedule is approved for the new University, may be expected to affect the 
figure also. 

North Carolina State College 
of Agriculture and Engineering 

The State College initiated its College Extension activities, outside 
of agriculture and home economics, with a series of correspondence courses in 



-117- 
caramios engineering in 1924-25. The sticcess of this course lead to the de- 
velopment of other correspondence courses and finally of extension classes. 
These two formal fields of endeavor, with the addition of short courses and 
certain organizational contact work, comprise the extra-mural sohedule of the 
College. 

Extension Classes: The estimated number of enrollments in extension 
classes this year (organization work is not completed) is 1,373 as compared 
with an actual total of 1,666 for last year. The decrease of from 15 per cent 
to 20 per cent is attributed to the depression. The actual number of indivi- 
duals enrolled last year was 691 and the estimated number for this year is 
600. Last year 75 classes were conducted; this year's estimate is 60. The 
average enrollment in each class is 22.8, a figure which will be maintained 
during the present year. Fourteen centers are being served; none conflicts 
with University or Woman's College classes. Twenty-three centers were served 
last year. The average distance from Raleigh of these centers is 79 miles; 
for last year the corresponding figure was 50 miles. 

Classes being given this year are in the following subjects, arranged 
in order of estimated total registration: education, 414; history, 299; 
English, 246; geology and soils, 148; sociology, 125; psychology, 41; art, 30; 
German, 25; Spanish, 20; chemistry, 15; French, >» The emphasis here as at 
the University, but in less degree, is on educt , History and English 
have heavy enrollments also, however. 

Fees paid by students are $7.50 as compared with $10.00 charged at 
the other state institutions for like services. The lower fee may be respon- 
sible for larger class registrations. The average of 22.8 is gratifyingly 
high; there are few classes of less than 15 students. All should be brought 
up to the 20-25 minimum if possible. The clientele, as at the other institu- 
tions, is 95 per cent composed of teachers, praotically all of whom are work- 
ing for college credit or for certification. 

Instructors are all full-time members of the campus faoulty and 



-118- 
usually of professorial grade. They are remunerated, on a graduated scale 
commensurate with rank, experienca, size of class, and distance. The re- 
sult is a definitely lower compensation than the rates paid at the University 
and the College for Women. 

State College has perhaps concentrated too heavily upon the teacher 
group, although efforts to develop non-credit courses, it is reported, were 
not highly successful. Little evidence is available as to the manner of pre- 
sentation of these offerings; there would seen to be a need, particularly in 
a city as large as Raleigh, for informal adult education. 

Uniformity with the other institutions in fees paid by students may 
be expected to increase income slightly. The College avers its willingness to 
duplicate any campus course on compliance with the minimum rule; this is per- 
haps too ambitious an objective. 

Correspondence Courses: The enrollment in correspondence courses in 
1930-31 was 445. The figure as of January 15, 1932, covering the first half of 
the academic year was 35? which indicates a probable increase for the entire 
year of about 200 registrations* Of the 357 now registered^ 319 are enrolled 
for credit and 38 are not. Courses are offered in agriculture; chemistry; 
education and psychology; economics and business law; English; geology; his- 
tory and government; engineering, including ceramics; mathematics; modern 
languages; sociology. By far the heaviest enrollment is in history and 
government, 80 per oent being in this course. Sociology ranks second with 
about 10 per cent of the total, Th6 percentage of completion is said to be 
high, though no actual figures are available c 

The College makes a charge of $7.50 for a single correspondence course. 
This charge is fifty cents less than that of the University* 

The rates of remuneration to faculty, both in class and correspondence 
work, are so low that they might cast doubt upon the quality of service ren- 
dered. There is every indication, however that faculty members teaching in 
extension have given of their best. It is the practice of College Extension 



-119- 

to pay a minimum of $60.00 and a maximum of $112 o 50 for a two-hour course once 
a week for sixteen weeks ■ This is at the rate per session of $3.75 for instruc- 
tors paid at the minimum rate and $7.00 for those who receive the maximum. This 
compares with a $9.00 rate at the College for Women s and at the University of 
North Carolinaj to an average of $8c00 for the instructors of lower rank, and 
to an average of $9.00 for full professors. (The University's scale is also 
graduated in accordance with distance from Chapel Hille) State College allows 
six oents a mile for travelc In fee correspondence department at State College, 
the allowance for preparation of" a two- semester -hour course of sixteen assign^ 
ments is $25.00 (compared with $40.00 at the University)* Reading and correc- 
tion of papers is paid for at the rate of ten cents a paperj the comparable 
figure at the University is twenty-seven cents tc thirty cents. 

The rates paid instructors for preparation of courses and for reading 
papers submitted are definitely too low® The fact that extension is self=> 
supporting at Stats College is partly the result of low organizational cost 
and administrative overheads but more directly it represents a heavy contribu» 
tion of time and energy on the part of the instructional staff -» too heavy a 
burden to be long continued in the cases of men already carrying full teaching 
responsibilities on the campus c 

Special Activities: The College Extension activities have included a 
cooperative arrangement with a power company t . by which employees of the company 
were given a combination correspondence and class extension service. When the 
original appropriation made by the company was exhausted,, it was not renewed*. 
The percentage of completion for the first division of this work was high* 
Courses have been given in steam- power -plant engineering and other subjects 
especially requestede A short course^ given, annually for fifty electrical 
metermen s has been uniformly successful The work with parent- teacher 
organisations has been stopped because of lack of funds© This consisted 
largely of supplying speakers^ whose travel expenses were paid by the College^ 
A lecture bureau for College speakers lias been maintained© All special courses 5 



-120- 
aotivities, and institutes have been self-supporting. 

Financial Considerations j The entire extension program of State 
College has been self-supporting. This has been made possible by the low 
remuneration of faculty and low organization expense and overhead. The direct- 
ing head of the enterprise is the College Librarian. His salary is not charged 
to Extension. One field organizer and a part-time stenographer-seoretary com- 
plete the staff. The Department has no publication program, and it has been 
able to take on no servioe -which would not pay its own way. Extension did a 
gross business of $12,680.00 last year. This was expended mainly as follows: 
fees to instructors, preparation of correspondence courses, correction of 
papers, etc., $6,196.00; travel, $2,244.07; administrative salaries, $2,980.00; 
and the bal&noe for miscellaneous small items. The estimated gross for this 
year is $11,200.00, with the same plan of distribution of costs. 

If the extension work were properly subsidized at State College, and 
reasonable charges for administrative and teaching services made against it, 
an improved servioe to the public would result and the individual faculty 
member vrould be given a decent wage for his extra-mural teaohing servioe. It 
is useless to deny that faculty members now devote time and energy to off- 
campus teaohing as a matter of loyalty to their college and to their profes- 
sion — presumably not at the expense of their campus teaohing, although the 
suspicion that this is the case will persist until the oondition is remedied. 
The College administration is not to be blamed for this situation; it sensed 
a need on the part of the publio and has attempted to meet that need despite 
the lack of sufficient 6tate funds to do so. Any coordinated state plan of 
extension should include State College on the same basis as the other branches 
of the University. 

Agricultural Extension; An extensive system of agricultural exten- 
sion is maintained at State College, regularly expending annually a total of 
$634,000; $334,000 from federal funds, $120,000 from state funds, and 
$190,000 from looal funds. County farm agents are maintained in eighty- three 



-121- 
out of one hundred counties, four of which have in addition assistant agents. 
There are employed sixty-two women as county home demonstration agents or 
supervisors and an administrative staff at headquarters of seven. In addition, 
seventeen counties have Negro county farm agents and there are seven Negro 
women employed as county home demonstration agent3. 

The activities of this large staff reach 30,000 through the Four-H 
Clubs and a total of over 1,000,000 people during a year. The number of ex- 
tension meetings is given as 7,795, with 1,163,161 in attendance. Over 
29,000 farms were visited last year and 13,989 different homes. 

It is strongly to be urged that any comprehensive system of state- 
wide general extension and adult education should include the active coopera- 
tion of this group of trained workers. There is nothing in the state or 
federal laws which would prevent iSie farm agents from acting as educational 
and vocational counsellors to the people whom they visit. The availability 
of the state's general extension services should be brought to the attention 
of the rural population through these agents, and through the agricultural 
extension publications. 

Need of a State Policy 

The need for a unification of state policy with regard to many per- 
plexing extension problems will be manifest from a perusal of the preceding 
sections of this report. It is the purpose of this section to summarize and 
enumerate, and in some cases to discuss briefly, certain of the matters upon 
which agreement as between the several branches of the new University, is 
important to the best interests of the state. 

Allocation of State Funds i A determination should be reaohed as to 
the amount which the state reels it wise to expend upon general extension in 
a given year. This amount has run as high as $75,000; this year it will be 
about $40,000. This lower budget figure has resulted in serious curtailment 
of services at the three institutions, particularly at the University, and 



-122- 

and in the continuation of unfairly low standards of remuneration at State 
College. The state should expend at least $70,000 for extension service 
in the year to come* Such an appropriation would insure a dollar-for-dollar 
contribution from the people of the state for these servioes — a reasonable 
and normal arrangement which is to be highly commended* If the present 
financial stringency should persist, a temporary reduction would be necessary. 
It would be unfortunate if this temporary reduction were more than 10 per cent. 
The expectation of increased state appropriations for adult education needs in 
the future should be faced. In normal times, $150,000 a year from state 
funds for this purpose could be used to a good eduoational advantage and would 
result directly in the economic and spiritual betterment of the state's 
population. 

Development of New Fields! There is need for unified institutional 
action in developing new fields of adult education within the state, where 
needs are great but have not become articulate. In this connection, the 
utilization of public school plants, libraries, churches, and organizational 
facilities is most important. The tendency in all three institutions has 
been to concentrate too greatly upon the school teacher. The needs of the 
teacher are not to be overlooked, but there are other seotions of the popula- 
tion which have a right to similar advantages at partial state expense. The 
informal extension activities of all three branches of the University should 
be allowed to grow; the amassing of college credit is not a paramount need of 
the body politic, but the consciousness of contact with college institutions 
by normal adults makes for their health of mind and for the good of the common- 
wealth. The institutions might profitably change the emphasis from converting 
those already converted to education and address themselves to the untouched 
elements in the communities. Industry and labor are not adequately served at 
present. Professional groups other than teachers need attention. Attempts 
should be made to discover both cultural and vocational needs. Technological 
changes in industry and increasing leisure present new problems. 



-123- 

Allocation of Territory* The growth of demands for service makes oon- 
stant conference in the matter of allocation of territory a paramount necessity 
in order to prevent duplication and overlapping. The groundwork for such con- 
ference is already laid. The cooperation of the private colleges, Duke 
University, and the State Teachers Colleges in this same matter will be highly 
desirable. Each of these Institutions should be affiliated with the plan. 

Uniform Administrations Many administrative details of management 
should be discussed in order to make for a certain amount of uniformity, both 
for the sake of institutional clarity and in order to dispel confusion in the 
minds of users of these services throughout tiie state. The matter of credit 
for class and correspondence courses taken is a case in point. 

At present the College for Women allows extension class work to a 
total of one year toward a degree. The University allows one year by corres- 
pondence and one and one-half years by class instruction or by class and 
correspondence combined. State College permits four-fifths of a year by 
correspondence and one and one-fifth years by class or by class and correspon- 
dence combined. The result is confusion. Agreement as to the institutional 
interchangeability of these credits should be reached. 

Other matters upon which varying degrees of uniformity would be desir- 
able are rates of remuneration for facultyj the size of classes, minimum and 
maximum; amounts of fees to be paid by students for class and correspondence 
courses; minimum and maximum teaching loads for instructors; the extent of in- 
formal services and organizational aid to be accorded; the relative desirability 
of offerings in education and in other subject-matter fields; the interchange- 
ability of field organization services; the future utilization of the agricul- 
tural extension staff; the desirability of a unified radio program! the 
advantages of combined publicity announcements; cooperative announcements of 
courses and other publications. 

It would be desirable also to determine upon the need, if any exists, 
of university extension centers in outlying districts. The desirability or the 



-124- 

non-desirability of full-time extension instructors is another problem which 
would profit by inter-institutional discussion. Likewise, the question of cor- 
respondence offerings from all three centers (the College for Women does not now 
offer such courses) should be determined, as well as the selection of fields and 
subjects' in which desirable results may be obtained by home study* A library 
extension policy should be outlined, and cooperation with the State Library 
Commission, as well as the institutional libraries concerned, should be sought. 

It is evident that a consolidated approach to adult education in North 
Carolina, from the point of view of the consumers of such offerings rather 
than of the institutions offering the service, will do much to advance the 
quality of citizenship within the state. It is neoessary that the entire 
problem be visualized ~ a task worthy of the mettle of educational statesmen. 
North Carolina, starting from the favorable position in which she now finds 
herself, may well blaze a trail of national as well as of state importance. 

Major Recommendations 

To make possible the realization of the objectives as set forth, the 
following recommendations are made* 

1. That there be established in the University system a Division of 
Extension with a director. It would be the duty of this director to develop 
a unified program of general extension adapted to the needs of the state. 
Each branch of the University would take such part as the interests and prepa- 
ration of its staff made possible. 

2* That an Advisory Council be established consisting of the director, 
the director of Agricultural Extension Service, a representative of the State 
Department of Education and of each branoh of the new University. 

In any unified plan which may be adopted, care should be taken to 
avoid hard and fast rules for the conduot of tiie work. Complete flexibility 

i 

The President may deem it more expedient to work out the program by means 

of a committee. If this were done, the chairman of the committee would oarry 

the responsibilities suggested for the director. 



-125- 
is of the highest importance, for the development of the field of adult educa- 
tion is rapid and as complex as the manifold ramifications of American life. 
The North Carolina program of the future should keep step with industrial change, 
shifts in population, vocational trends, and the expanding cultural needs of 
the state. 

Minor Recommendations 

1. The work of the extension service is confined largely to teachers. 
An effort should be made to build up a new clientele outside of the teaching 
profession. 

2. The employment of full-time extension instructors should be kept at 
a minimum. 

3. The minimum size for which an extension class will be maintained 
should be raised to at least twenty. 

4. The cost of the service rendered to the public schools of the state 
should be borne by the State Board of Education. 

5. In general, public lectures should not be subsidized from state 
funds . 

6. The Bureau of Community Drama should be more adequately financed at 
the earliest possible date. 

7. An effort should be made to include the state teachers colleges and 
the private institutions in the development of the state's program of adult 
education. 

8. The unification of the extension service under one administration 
should result in uniformity of fees, credit, amount paid for services of the 
faculty, minimum size of classes, etc regardless of the branch of the Univer- 
sity through which the work is done. 



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APPENDIX D 

Tentative Program for Training Teachers of Commercial Studies 
for High Sohools in North Carolina at 
the North Carolina College for Vv'omen 



(Leading to Degree B. S. in Commerce) 



To obtain the highest grade of certificate the state requires the 
student to take the following: 

Courses in education and psychology ..21 hours 

(Including eduoational psychology, materials and 
methods in two fields, and practice teaching) 

Courses in oommerce ........ • ........45 hours 

Courses in English.. ....24 hours 

(it is assumed that English could be most 
satisfactorily ■vrorked out as the second 
teaching subject) 

Total required by the state. 90 hours 



Furtner College requirements not included in the 
above such as freshman history, scienoe, 
etc .30 hours 

Total required courses..... .......120 hours 

(Apparently no elective^ possible) 



Under the 45 hours of commerce required, the following are suggested: 

Stenography and typewriting.......... .........10 or 12 hours 

Accounting. ..••..•..•...••.........•.•••.....• ..... 3 hours 

Office management. 3 hours 

Principles of economics..... 6 hours 

Commercial law... 6 hours 

Banking and investments 6 hours 

Statistics...... 3 hours 

Economic geography. 3 hours 

Modern business organization............ 3 hours 

Business English............. 3 hours 

48 hours